Mutare City River Pollution, Zimbabwe

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">Most of the surbubs in Mutare are located along Sakubva River which cuts across the city and passes through some villages before draining into Odzi River; then it drains into Save River which passes through Marange. According to Mukokeri (1999) cited by Mapira (2011), Mutare City pollutes Sakubva River and its tributaries in three ways, 'namely by sewage, industrial and institutional waste', adding that zinc, lead, arsenic and mecury, and wastes from a pulp & paper mill being discharged from industries are polluting river water, thereby endangering human and aquatic life. It is virtually impossible to find any life in Sakubva River. The river is also polluted by detergents used by households and flushed into the sewage system which sometimes find its way into Sakubva river. There is also Municipal Sewage works at Gimboki which also dumbs sludge into Sakubva River. The effects of Sakubva River pollution are heavily felt in Dora communal lands where about 30 000 people rely on it for domestic and irrigation purposes. This community also has few alternatives to Sakubva river due to poverty and lack of awareness on the dangers of using the polluted river water. Livestock in Dora communal lands depend on Sakubva River as well. <br/><br/></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Mutare City River Pollution, Zimbabwe</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/zimbabwe">Zimbabwe</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Manicaland</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Mutare City </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>MEDIUM regional level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Waste Management</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Water access rights and entitlements<br /> Chemical industries<br /> Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp<br /> Manufacturing activities<br /> Landfills, toxic waste treatment, uncontrolled dump sites</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/eucalyptus'>Eucalyptus</a><br /><a href='/commodity/recycled-metals'>Recycled Metals</a><br /><a href='/commodity/e-waste'>E-waste</a><br /><a href='/commodity/chemical-products'>Chemical products</a><br /><a href='/commodity/cellulose'>Cellulose</a><br /><a href='/commodity/manufactured-products'>Manufactured Products</a><br /><a href='/commodity/domestic-municipal-waste'>Domestic municipal waste</a><br /><a href='/commodity/industrial-waste'>Industrial waste</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>40000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>-0</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>100,000 - 150,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>1996</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/mutare-city-council'>Mutare City Council</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/zimbabwe'><small>Zimbabwe</small></a><br /><a href='/company/mutare-board-and-paper-mills'>Mutare Board and Paper Mills</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/zimbabwe'><small>Zimbabwe</small></a><br /><a href='/company/the-watlle-company'>The Watlle Company</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/zimbabwe'><small>Zimbabwe</small></a><br /><a href='/company/dairy-board-zimbabwe'>Dairy Board Zimbabwe</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/zimbabwe'><small>Zimbabwe</small></a><br /><a href='/company/border-timbers'>Border Timbers</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/zimbabwe'><small>Zimbabwe</small></a><br /><a href='/company/zimbabwe-national-army'>Zimbabwe National Army</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/zimbabwe'><small>Zimbabwe</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Environmental Management Agency, Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Ministry of Local Government, Zimbabwe National Water Authority, Mutare City Council, Mutare Rural District Council</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Environment Africa http://www.environmentafrica.org/, Mutare Residents and Rate Payers Association, Center for Natural Resource Governance, National Association of Non Governmental organizations</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>LOW (some local organising)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>Mobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> Local ejos<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Social movements</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)<br /> Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Development of alternative proposals<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Arguments for the rights of mother nature<br /> Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Air pollution, Food insecurity (crop damage), Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Malnutrition, Deaths, Other environmental related diseases<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Infectious diseases</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Corruption</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Raising Awareness among residents and the polluting companies<br/><br/>Demonstrations in suburbs affected by pollution<br/><br/>Demonstrations at the Council Offices and at the premises of companies that are leading in pollution<br/><br/>Engaging local academic institutions for research and publications on pollution</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The pollution of Sakubva River and its tributaries is continuing unabated. The fines that have been charged by the Environmental Management Agency are very paltry, making it cheaper to pollute than to prevent pollution. The City Council, which must strive to keep the city, including its rivers clean, is a major culprit in pollution, hence environmental justice has not been served.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Zimbabwe National Water Authority act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Urban Councils Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Rural Districts Councils Act<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> PROMOTING WATER QUALITY LAWS ENFORCEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION IN ZIMBABWE’S URBAN AREAS<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Pollution in the City.pdf<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.jsd-africa.com/Jsda/Vol13No6_Fall2011_B/PDF/River" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> MTISIS, SHAMISO<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.inece.org/conference/8/proceedings/68_Mtisis.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> RIVER POLLUTION IN THE CITY OF MUTARE (ZIMBABWE) AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa (Vol 13, No.6, 2011 (attached)<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Government drills boreholes in Mutare<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.thestandard.co.zw/2013/03/18/government-drills-boreholes-in-mutare/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> </p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Comments</td><td>0</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Farai Maguwu</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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