Nairobi National Park and Southern bypass, Kenya

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The Government of Kenya and the Kenya National Highways Authority has proposed the construction of the Southern Bypass through the Nairobi National Park (NNP) for a distance of 4 km and 120m width. Kenya Wildlife Services (KWS) were requested to provide a 15 hectares transport corridor and offered Ksh. 1.8 Billion to acquire suitable land along the boundary of NNP as compensation. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> A Committee was formed to oppose the decision; it actively lauched activities for raising awareness and conducted letter writing campaign, arguing that implementation of the project will set a dangerous precedent for demands for excisioning parts of National Parks. <br/><br/> They also warn that NNP is public land as per the Constitution which entitles the new National Land Commission to hold and administer all Parks. Therefore, KWS has no right to give away any part of the NNP albeit having been empowered by the Wildlife Act, Cap 376 to manage national parks. In this case, the Constitution overrides the said provision. <br/><br/> NEMA gave the proponent a licence on condition that they shall not encroach on gazetted Parks. Since the proponent breached the provisions of the license, the Southern Bypass Committee filed a petition at National Environmental Tribunal (NET) on 29th Feb 2012 to obtain relevant orders against them. In the meanwhile, a Parliamentary debate about the bypass took place on 21st June 2012; the Minister for Forestry and Wildlife was asked to clarify whether Government had approved the said project and to ensure that environmental laws of Kenya will be strictly observed. <br/><br/> In May 2013, the case against Kenya Highways Authority (KENHA) on the 4km section of the Southern by-pass road, between Ole Sereni Hotel and Carnivore Restaurant, which would have encroached on Nairobi National Park was won. The EIA license issued by NEMA to the KENHA has been revoked for the section of the road that section of the road. To get a new license they must comply fully with the laws of Kenya. This was a success though the battle is not over yet, they may pursue the option of de-gazetting that segment of the park. Currently the construction of the road is ongoing with no clear plan /indication as to what will happen to that section of the road that was to pass through Nairobi National Park. There are fears that they might even ignore the ruling and construct through the park. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Nairobi National Park and Southern bypass, Kenya</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/kenya">Kenya</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Nairobi </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Nairobi city</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Biodiversity conservation conflicts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Deforestation<br /> Establishment of reserves/national parks<br /> Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br /><a href='/commodity/biological-resources'>Biological resources</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">The Kenya Urban Roads Authority has signed a contract with a Chinese construction firm to construct a 28 km Southern Bypass transport corridor which is planned to enter into the Nairobi Park for a distance of 4 km along the northern boundary. This includes a four-lane highway plus a reserve for two railways in future. Work on other sections of the bypass has already begun. <br/><br/></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>150</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>38 million Kenyans</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>12/2011</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Government of Kenya through Kenya Urban Roads Authority , Ministry of Roads;, Kenya National Highways Authority;, Kenya Urban Roads Authority;, Kenya Wildlife Service;, NEMA;, Kenya Forest Service;, Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife;, Kenya Airport Authority;, Kenya Civil Aviation Authority</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Southern Bypass action Committee composed of, Nairobi Greenline Trust, Friends of Nairobi National Park (FoNNap), Nature Kenya, Kenya Wildlife Conservation Forum, Clean Earth, East African Wild Life Service, UNEP, Green Hearts Kenya, African Network for Animal Welfare</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Local ejos<br /> Social movements<br /> Local scientists/professionals</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Objections to the EIA<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Accidents</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Under construction</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Negotiated alternative solution</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>-Construction of a tunnel to among other things,<br/><br/>-Meet the International Civil Aviation<br/><br/>requirements that require at least 570 meters clearance from the North-South runway of any airport. This proposal was deemed expensive.<br/><br/>-Demolition of houses around the park, if indeed they were allocated illegally and because the 1900s survey maps had allocated that land for a road. </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Not Sure</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>Though it was a success for NET to revoke the EIA for the section of the road that was to pass through NNP, Construction of the road in other sections is still ongoing with no clear plan on how the National Park will be avoided. In fact, there are fears that KENHA might ignore the ruling and construct the road through the National Park.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Constitution of the Republic of Kenya, 2010; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Forests Act, 2005; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Forest Policy; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Wildlife (Conservation and Management) Act of 1976 ; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act (EMCA) of 1999; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Environmental Policy.<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> The Star<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.the-star.co.ke/national/national/78286-nema-threatens-to-stop-bypass-project-" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> National Geographic:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/news/case-study-greater-southern-bypass/?ar_a=1" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Fonnap<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://fonnap.wordpress.com/tag/southern-by-pass//southern-by-pass" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Fonnap:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://fonnap.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/southern-bypass-inote-final.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Serah Munguti</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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