NO-TAV movement against High Speed Train, Val di Susa, Italy

Description
The Turin–Lyon high-speed railway is a planned 220 km/h railway line that will connect the two cities and link the Italian and French high-speed rail networks.
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Basic Data
NameNO-TAV movement against High Speed Train, Val di Susa, Italy
CountryItaly
ProvinceProvince of Turin, Piedmont
SiteVal di Susa and Val Sangone mountain community
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Land acquisition conflicts
Deforestation
Specific CommoditiesLand
Project Details and Actors
Project Details
The high-speed line Turin-Lyon is a key element of the European Priority Project TEN-T n° 6 and part of the Mediterranean Corridor that will link the Iberian peninsula to the Ukrainian border.
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Project Area (in hectares)235 km [railway line length]
Level of Investment (in USD)34,050,000,000.00 USD [25,000,000,000.00€]
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Potential Affected Population114,223[population of the Val di Susa and Val Sangone mountain community]
Start Date1990
Company Names or State EnterprisesGeomont fondazioni speciali s.r.l. from Italy - Geognostic surveys and special foundation
Cooperativa Muratori & Cementisti (Gruppo CMC) from Italy - Construction
Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (RFI) from Italy - Management of the italian railway infrastructure
STRABAG from Austria - Constructions
COGEIS from Italy - Excavations
Bentini Spa from Italy
GEODATA Engineering from Italy - Geoengineering design
Réseau ferré de France (RFF) from France - Management of the french railway infrastructure
Lyon Turin Ferroviaire (LTF ) from Italy - General contractor [binational association, main office in Chambéry, Francia; scondary office in Torino, Italy]
Relevant government actorsProvince and city of Turin, the Piemonte Region, the Italian government, the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure, TAV Turin-Lyon Observatory
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersControsservatorio Valsusa http://controsservatoriovalsusa.org/ ETINOMIA ethical entrepreneur for defend the common http://etinomia.it/,National Federation pro natura Piemonte http://www.pro-natura.it/, local Green Party, Five Star Movement, Left Ecology Freedom party, Communist parties, Legambiente, Chiesa Valdese, Arci ValleSusa
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingInternational ejos
Recreational users
Religious groups
Farmers
Local ejos
Social movements
Local government/political parties
Trade unions
Local scientists/professionals
Industrial workers
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Women
Informal workers
Pastoralists
Forms of MobilizationAppeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Development of a network/collective action
Property damage/arson
Hunger strikes and self immolation
Public campaigns
Artistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Blockades
Land occupation
Refusal of compensation
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Sabotage
Boycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Media based activism/alternative media
Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Objections to the EIA
Street protest/marches
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Development of alternative proposals
Official complaint letters and petitions
Strikes
Appeals to the European Parliament; The Controsservatorio Valsusa, association constituted in early 2014, presented in April 2014 a petition to the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal (an indipendent international opinion tribunal which examines and provides judgements relatives to violations of human rights and rights of peoples) http://www.internazionaleleliobasso.it/?page_id=207&lang=en. The petition denounces the violation of local citizens fundamental rights (right to health, right to environment, right to a decent living standard, right to information, right to partecipate in decision that affect your life); Promotion of alliances with other struggles and local movements in Italy and Europe (especially with other countries concerned by the high speed lines) through the promotion of conferences, national demonstrations, camping
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Noise pollution, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems
Potential: Groundwater pollution or depletion, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Soil contamination
Health ImpactsPotential: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Other Health impacts, Accidents
OtherThe mountains where the tunnel will be implemented contain uranium and asbestos that would be released into the atmosphere during the works. The extraction of uranium from the Ambin mountain range could expose workers and the local population to radiation and therefore to tumours and leukaemia.
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Land dispossession
Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures
Outcome
Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCorruption
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Project temporarily suspended
Criminalization of activists
Repression
Deaths
Strengthening of participation
Violent targeting of activists
Land demarcation
Migration/displacement
In the '90s during the first wave of arrests, two activists, Edoardo Massari e Soledad Rosas, were jailed accused of sabotage to TAV project, the two died in prison suicides.
The ongoing repression of the No TAV movement includes more than one hundred cases with almost one thousand different defendants and charges, including accusations of sabotage and attack with terrorist purposes.
In early 2012 the italian low “Legge di stabilità” defined the work sites of the project as an area of strategic national interest, protected by military forces and with special measures for those who enter illegally in the area.
In 2013 started the ongoing MAXI Process against 52 NOTAV accused for the events which occurred in clashes with police during protests in June and July 2011.
Recent arrests date back to December 2013 when four NOTAV were arrested by the Prosecutor of Turin, who accused them of “actions aimed at a terroristic attack” for having taken part to an action against the project construction site in May 2013. The Supreme Cassation Court of Italy rejected the accusation but protesters are still in prison waiting for the process.
Court decision (failure for environmental justice)
Development of AlternativesFreights and passengers could be transported using the existing railway line, the Frejus international railway, crossing the Susa Valley and connecting Turin to Lyon, recently renewed and improved (2002-2010) but up to now used for less than a quarter of its capacity.
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.The No TAV movement has extended in popularity and geographical spread in Italy and other European countries in the years and raised attention at National and European level on the environmental and economic controversies of a big infrastructural project.

NO TAV has tried to draw attention to the lack of a proper EIA, lack of consultation with local communities and poor project planning. Their criticisms have been based on solid argumentation and scientific research. The strength of the movement stems from its capacities for network organization, multi-sectorial collaboration and research, which enabled credible alternative proposals.

Presently the geognostic tunnel is under construction and protests to stop the project are still ongoing.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

LEGGE 23 aprile 2014, n. 71. Ratification and implementation of the Agreement between Italy and France
[click to view]

LEGGE 12 novembre 2011, n. 183. Provisions for the preparation of the italian State annual budget
[click to view]

References

AA. VV. (2002), Impatto sul territorio delle grandi infrastrutture di trasporto: Il caso del TAV Torino-Lione, Seminario del Torino Social Forum sul Piano Strategico 2000-2010 per Torino - 20 febbraio 2002.
[click to view]

Prud'homme R. (2007), Essai d'analyse de l'utilité sociale du tunnel Lyon-Turin, Université Paris XII

The Handbook: Ecological Economics from the Bottom-Up. Chapter 2: HIGH SPEED TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE (TAV) IN ITALY
[click to view]

EC (European Commission) White Paper - Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area - Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system Brussels
[click to view]

Railway Related Impacts:the Turin-Lyon High-Speed Rail Case.M. Clerico,L.Giunti,L.Mercalli, M. Ponti, A. Tartaglia, S.Ulgiati,M. Zucchetti, Politecnico di Torino (Italy), Fresenius Environmental Bulletin (in print, 2014)

EC TEN-T TRANS-EUROPEAN TRANSPORT NETWORK, Implementation of the priority projects, November 2012, Brussels

Network Rail, 2009. New Lines Programme. Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional and High Speed Rail.
[click to view]

Profanazioni No-TAV. Riappropriazioni del comune e processi di soggettivazione, di Emanuele Leonardi, Federico Chicchi, 2008.
[click to view]

Stop That Train! Ideological Conflict and The Tav. Lucie Greyl, Hali Healy, Emanuele Leonardi, Leah Temper. Special Issue “Transport Economics and the Environment” of the Journal “Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment”, 2012.

EC TEN-T TRANS-EUROPEAN TRANSPORT NETWORK, Implementation of the priority projects, November 2012, Brussels

Presidiare la democrazia - Controsservatorio Valsusa, Petition to the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal, April 2014
[click to view]

Links

TAV Turin-Lyon Observatory website
[click to view]

Italian government website
[click to view]

European Commision, Mobility and Transport
[click to view]

LTF Official website
[click to view]

NOTAV websites
[click to view]

TGvallesusa
[click to view]

Spintadalbass
[click to view]

Controsservatorio Valsusa
[click to view]

Other Documents

NOTAV flag
[click to view]

NOTAV demonstration
[click to view]

EU Priority Project n°6
[click to view]

TAV work site
[click to view]

Railway line map
[click to view]

Local population against TAV
[click to view]

NOTAV protests
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorCDCA
Last update15/10/2014
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