Nuclear Waste Disposal at Trgovska gora, Croatia

The Croatian government’s decision to store nuclear waste from the NPP “Krško” in Trgovska gora, at the border with Bosnia, has provoked strong opposition in both countries.


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"> Croatia owns 50% of the Nuclear Power Plant “Krško” in Slovenia and as such it is obliged to take care of half of the nuclear waste after the NPP stops working in 2043. Slovenia has already build the permanent nuclear waste repository in close proximity to the NPP Krško (locality Vrbina). Croatian government, however, found more economically viable to build the repository within its territory, also because of EU funds directed to local municipalities hosting such object. Since 1999 the former underground military warehouse in Trgovska gora, located 2,5 km from a town Dvor and 850 m from the river Una, has been registered in the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Croatia as the only potential location for the repository. Trgovska gora is an area of high nature value and it has long tradition in mining and agricultural activities. It is also part of Bania, the poorest and least populated regions in Croatia and predominantly inhabited by the Serbian ethnic minority.  From the very beginning the project faced disapproval from local authorities, citizens and NGOs. In 2003, more than 16,000 people signed petition against the repository. However, that was not sufficient resolve the conflicts, and the issue was reopened in 2007 and most recently in 2013 after Croatia joined the EU and accepted to respect its norms for radioactive waste disposal. In February 2015, the citizens of Dvor reported large number of cargo trucks bringing unknown load to the selected location. In April 2015, the Council of the Municipality of Dvor brought unanimous decision to say NO to the repository, as well as have communicated their views on the issue with the national government of Croatia. Given that the Una River forms the natural border among Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, more precisely the Republica Srpska (RS) - Serbian entity, the storage would also affect the closest Bosnian city Novi Grad (only 2km from the location). In addition, river Una has been declared as National Park in B&amp;H and it is protected under Natura 2000 network. When the municipal authorities, the RS minister of ecology, scientists, citizens and activists public in Bosnia learnt about the repository they organised petitions, protests, and public discussions. They criticise the strategic study which does not take account for 230,000 people that live at the Bosnian side of the river Una Basin. They pointed out that Croatia violated the ESPOO convention under which the repository should be placed at least 20 km from the international boundaries. The National Assembly of RS adopted “Declaration against the construction of nuclear waste disposal site” and received support by Parliament of the Federation B&amp;H. Bosnian authorities also reported the case to the European Commission and ESPOO convention signatories. In March 2016, Croatian and Bosnian opponents organised joint protests and public hearings in the Croatian capital, Zagreb and in the town of Dvor. The opponents explained that Trgovska gora is not an adequate area for such object given the high seismic activity, risk of floods, porous rocks, and the fact that it contains important water resources. They suggested that the government of Croatia should invest in building new tanks at the locality Vrbina, Slovenia, and criticised the idea of potential economic benefits for the local people for hosting such repositories at the expense of the local development based on the ecological agriculture and tourism. This case has ethnic dimension as well. In March 2016, representatives of local Serbs sent a letter demanding from Croatian government to find another location, otherwise this would be understood as “the final act of the expulsion of the Serbian people from the area and attack to their health and the environment of a large number of citizens of the RS”. They consider that the location was chosen because the authorities expected least resistance from the scarce local population, mainly Serbian returnees after the civil war. New public discussions are planned in both Croatia and Bosnia, while citizens can send their suggestions and critiques on strategic study and “National program for radioactive waste disposal” to the State Office for Nuclear Safety and the Municipality of Dvor until the 6th of May 2016. Croatia should make final decision on the issue in 2016. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Nuclear Waste Disposal at Trgovska gora, Croatia </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/croatia">Croatia</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Sisak-Moslavina County</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Dvor na Uni, Municipality of Dvor</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Nuclear</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Nuclear waste storage<br /> Nuclear power plants</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/uranium'>Uranium</a><br />Nuclear waste, medical and industrial radioactive waste</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">NPP "Krško" was built in 1981. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">Trgovska gora is located 200 km away from the NPP “Krško”<br/><br/> The disposal site is planned to store:<br/><br/>- 60 tonnes of medical and industrial radioactive waste,<br/><br/>- 8,000 m3 of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, and<br/><br/>- 10,000 m3 of so called decommission nuclear waste. <br/><br/>The NPP was planned to be closed in 2023, but Interstate Commission extend its operating life with 20 years.<br/><br/>70 % of the repository impact zone is at the territory of B&H. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>54,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>213,000,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Semi-urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>235,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>1999</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/energy-and-environmental-protection-institute'>Energy and Environmental Protection Institute <small>(EKONERG)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/croatia'><small>Croatia</small></a> - <small>Author of the strategic study </small><br /><a href='/company/nuclear-power-plant-krsko'>Nuclear Power Plant "Krško"</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/slovenia'><small>Slovenia</small></a> - <small>Source of nuclear waste</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>The Government of Republic of Croatia; The State Office for Nuclear Safety, Croatia; The National Assembly of Republic of Srpska; Parliament of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; The Ministry of Spatial Planning, Civil Engineering and Ecology of Republic of Srpska</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>"STOP deponiji radioaktivnog otpada na Trgovskoj gori" https://www.facebook.com/stopnucleartrgora/; Local authorities in the Una River Basin; Political party “Živi zid” (Living Wall) https://www.facebook.com/zivizidd; Local Action Group LAG-UNA http://www.lag-una.hr/, Associacion "Iskra", Novi Grad; “Regionalnog foruma za okolišnu sigurnost i suradnju”; Associations "Zrinjska gora" and "Put kestena"; Mining, Geology and Civil Engineering Faculty of University of Tuzla, among others.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Fishermen<br /> Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Ethnically/racially discriminated groups<br /> Local scientists/professionals<br /> Young people and kids, beekeepers, Serbian minority</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Objections to the EIA<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Referendum other local consultations<br /> Street protest/marches<br /> Diplomatic activities</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Proposed (exploration phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Public discussions </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>The opponents agree that the best solution would be to invest in new tanks in the existing waste repository in Slovenia. The government of Bosnian and Herzegovina leads a diplomatic battle against the project. </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Not Sure</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>It stays to be seen in 2016 if the diplomatic and public pressure will make the Croatian government quit the idea of depositing nuclear waste in Trgovska gora.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Decision on public discussion continuation<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://cms.dzrns.hr/_news/10801/produljenje%20javne%20rasprave2.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Critical analysis of "Strategic studies for national program implementation strategy of radioactive waste management"<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://docs.rferl.org/sh-SH/2016/03/10/dc1f24c4-826b-4870-ba29-c75029d50232.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> U ovom mjestu u Hrvatskoj će se skladištiti nuklearni otpad iz Krškog.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.jutarnji.hr/nuklearni-ce-otpad-ici-na-trgovsku-goru-/1326900/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Hrvatske Srbe zavadio nuklearni otpad u Dvoru<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://m.tportal.hr/420788/Hrvatske-Srbe-zavadio-nuklearni-otpad-u-Dvoru.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Zvizdić: Hrvatska nuklearni otpad treba skladištiti u Krškom, ne na Trgovskoj gori<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.seebiz.eu/zvizdic-hrvatska-nuklearni-otpad-treba-skladistiti-u-krskom-ne-na-trgovskoj-gori/ar-132227/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Trans-boundary resistance against the storage<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.slobodnaevropa.org/content/pobuna-protiv-trgovske-gore-s-obje-strane-granice/27603059.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Report from the public debate<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://stvarnost.hr/zivi-zid-protiv-nuklearnog-otpada-u-hrvatskoj-razvijajte-ekoloski-a-ne-nuklearni-turizam/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Activists against the representative of Croatian Office for Nuclear Safety<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://stvarnost.hr/eko-aktivisti-sasa-medakovic-obmanjuje-javnost-krsi-ovlasti-i-ugrozava-zivot-i-okolis-citave-regije/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Government of B&H united against the storage in Dvor<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.glassrpske.com/drustvo/vijesti/Nuklearni-otpad-ne-smije-stici-u-dvoriste-BiH/lat/205260.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Croatian newspapers on the storage<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://net.hr/danas/hrvatska/zele-im-skladistiti-nuklearni-otpad-u-dvoristu-i-za-cernobil-su-govorili-da-je-siguran/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Trgovska gora and nuclear waste<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.ekapija.com/website/sr/page/1360907/Hrvatska-nuklearni-otpad-i-dalje-%C5%A1alje-na-Trgovsku-goru" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Serbian minority and nuclear waste in Trgovska gora<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.skandalozno.rs/planeta/hrvatska-zeli-da-skladisti-nuklearni-otpad-u-dvoru-gde-cak-80-odsto-stanovnistva-cine-srbi" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Slovenia suggest joint nuclear storage to Croatia<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://liderpress.hr/biznis-i-politika/hrvatska/slovenija-predlaze-hrvatskoj-zajednicku-lokaciju-za-nuklearni-otpad-u-opcini-krsko/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Report from the protest and public hearing in Dvor<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://stvarnost.hr/gradani-dvora-odbili-nuklearni-otpad-uhljebi-iz-drzavnih-agencija-ostavite-nas-na-miru/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> B&H demands solution from Croatia<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.nezavisne.com/novosti/bih/Citajte-u-NEZAVISNIMBiH-ocekuje-od-Hrvatske-novo-rjesenje-za-nuklearni-otpad/327929" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Trgovska gora is predominantly inhabited by Serbian minority<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.srbijadanas.com/clanak/hrvatska-vlada-resila-da-zemlju-ocisti-od-srba-nuklearni-odpad-izbacuju-u-mestu-gde-zive-srbi" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Letter by the representative of Serbian minority<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.tanjug.rs/full-view.aspx?izb=238502" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Trabs-boundary impact of nuclear waste<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.abc.ba/novost/38955/nuklearni-otpad-na-bh.-granici-za-nastavak-dogovora-ceka-se-nova-vlada-hrvatske" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> On economic aspect of the case<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.glas-slavonije.hr/218121/1/Zakopavat-cemo-nuklearni-otpad-jer-nam-je-skupo-platiti-Slovence" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> About plans to build nuclear waste storage<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.portalnovosti.com/atomski-s-desna-i-lijeva" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Diplomatic battle<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.infobrcko.com/vijesti/item/1512-ti-mene-radioaktivnim-otpadom-ja-tebe-rezolucijom-da-li-ce-hrvatska-ugroziti-zivote-hiljada-ljudi.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> B&H authorities at the ESPOO conference<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.nezavisne.com/novosti/drustvo/Zeneva-BiH-trazi-da-se-sprijeci-odlaganje-radiokativnog-otpada/364272" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Public discussion<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.tportal.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/423523/Milakovic-se-pohvalio-da-su-produljili-raspravu-o-Trgovskoj-gori.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Croatian Radioactive Waste Site Alarms Bosnians (in English)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/bosnia-rejects-croatian-radioactive-waste-close-to-its-borders" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Open letter to the president of Croatia<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.nacional.hr/otvoreno-pismo-predsjednici-pomoc-u-sprjecavanju-gradnje-odlagalista-radioaktivnog-otpada/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> RS opposed to Croatia's plan to build radioactive waste storage facility near border (in English)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.hina.hr/#vijest/8638809" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Bosnia and Croatia Spar Over Radioactive Waste Site (in English)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/bosnia-and-croatia-spar-over-radioactive-waste-site-03-02-2016" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Local reactions on the storage<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://dnevnik.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/stanovnici-dvora-protiv-nuklearnog-otpada-to-nam-ne-treba-k-o-ni-trece-oko-u-glavi---379878.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Issue related news<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qtHCjSyzsJM" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Protest in Dvor unites Croatia and B&H actors<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.google.rs/search?q=The+Government+of+Republic+of+Croatia&oq=The+Government+of+Republic+of+Croatia&aqs=chrome..69i57j0l3j69i64.190j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8#q=%22The+Government+of+Republic+of+Croatia%22" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Protests in Dvor<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-I7Df5k7ZBk" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Protest in Zagreb<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5TpIb2Ou8PI" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> TV interview with activist Dijana Savić and director of State Office for Nuclear Safety -Saša Medaković<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7tKtDEWz4S0" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Public discussion in Dvor<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sRQW5RaB3yo" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Mayor of Petrinja against the nuclear waste<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q8vio-UAKHM" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Bosnian authorities reaction<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IQK_0l-5O7A" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>Dvor says NO to nuclear waste disposal</strong> Citizents of Dvor protesting against the nuclear waste repository at Trgovska gora<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Citizents_of_Dvor.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>Citizents of Novi Grad, Bosnia signing petition against the repository</strong> Activists and citizens in Bosnia opposed the idea of nuclear waste storage in Trgovska gora<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Bosnia_petition_agains_Trgovska_gora_repository.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>"Una river has no price" and "Trgovska gora-NO, thank you"</strong> Protest at the Una river<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Una_protests.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Jovanka Spiric, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, vankajo(at)gmail.com</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>20/12/2016</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
Comments