Oil Pipeline Doba-Kribi, Chad-Cameroon

The Chad-Cameroon oil pipeline has had negative impacts on local population livelihood and is a meager source of income for alleviating poverty.


Description

In June 2000, in spite of a three years global opposition campaign, led by local population and International NGOs, the World Bank financed the Chad-Cameroon Oil Pipeline, a 1,100 km (685 mile) pipeline for crude oil from southern Chad, through tropical forest, to Cameroon’s Atlantic coast. The project also included the construction of 300 oil wells in Chad. The Cameroonian rainforest covers an area of about 20 million hectares, some 40 percent of the national territory. Besides posing a serious threat upon the biodiversity and the ecosystem of the country, the construction of the oil pipeline and the subsequent deforestation generated serious social conflicts, and deprived local indigenous communities of territorial resources and traditional livelihoods, especially the Bakola Pygmy people, who rely on hunting and gathering. Bantou villagers claimed Pygmies’ lands as theirs and received the compensations which were due to the Pygmies. In 2002, a project by Forest Peoples Programme helped resolve some of the long-standing rivalries between the Bantou and the pygmies. Overall the compensation plan by Cameroon Oil Transportation Company (COCTO) is insufficient. And so was the “Indigenous Peoples Programme”, implemented by the FEDEC, which was not adequate to the Pygmies’ needs.  

The Yaounde Peoples Tribunal was launched in September 2005 by organizations supporting local communities five years protest against the project denouncing serious social and environmental impacts and investigating project related human rights violations. In operation since October 2003, local NGOs denounce the project and enumerate the numerous oil spills regularly occurring. The oil extractivist industry also threatens the fishing economy of Kibri, the Cameroon’s port from where the oil exported. Far from being a poverty relief, the pipeline provokes health problems to the population living in the 242 villages where it goes through. In 2011, a complaint against the World Bank and International Finance Corporation listed the following points against COTCO’s operations:

- A rise in HIV/AIDS after the laying of the pipeline -Concerns over quality and adequacy of compensation packages -Loss of livelihoods among fishermen -Inappropriate waste management -Work related accidents and inadequate compensation - Displacement of and improper compensation to, an indigenous community - Concerns about sub contractors and compensation process and levels -Concerns regarding royalties for the passage of oil through Cameroon.

In spite of the multiplication of reports or monitoring entities (such as the International Advisory Group or the External Compliance Monitoring Group) following up on the situation and set up by the World Bank, the international institution has demonstrated its incapacity “of influencing the operations of oil companies in any meaningful way, so that they become more respectful of the environment and the rights of the affected communities and workers“.

The pipeline also has severe consequences on Chad. Scandals bust up denouncing that the government finances its war against the rebels in the North and East of the country with the revenues from oil. None of that money has benefited the local residents affected by the pipeline, while its route is very close to Chad’s most fertile region.  

Basic Data
NameOil Pipeline Doba-Kribi, Chad-Cameroon
CountryChad
SiteDoba (Chad) to Kribi (Cameroon)
Accuracy of LocationLOW country/state level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Oil and gas exploration and extraction
Land acquisition conflicts
Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Specific CommoditiesLand
Crude oil
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe Chad-Cameroon Oil and Pipeline project was created to transport oil extracted in southern Chad - a country without access to the sea- to the Gulf of Guinea and from there to European and North American ports. The Chad-Cameroon project involved the opening of 300 oil wells in southern Chad and the construction of a huge 1,100 km (685 mile) pipeline. The project was led by the World Bank together with the three big oils company consortium: Exxon, Chevron and Petronas and COCTO, the Cameroon Oil Transportation Company. Since June 2014, Chevron is no longer part of the consortium. The oil multinational "sold its 25 percent non-operated interest in a producing oil concession in southern Chad and the related export pipeline interests to the Republic of Chad for approximately $1.3 billion" [1].

The Environmental Defense Fund calculated that under optimum working conditions, the pipeline carries a peak of 225,000 barrels of oil per day. The construction of a new oil terminal in Kribi was confirmed by the Cameroonian government by the end of 2015. The new infrastructure will annually export 3 million tonnes of crude oil.
Project Area (in hectares)pipeline: 1100 kms
Level of Investment (in USD)USD 4,2 bil. (World Bank: USD 370 mil.)
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population22,000
Start Date1997
Company Names or State EnterprisesExxonMobil Corporation (Exxon) from United States of America
Texaco Petroleum Co. from United States of America
Tchad Oil Transportation Company
Chevron Corporation from United States of America
Cameroon Oil Transportation Company (COTCO)
PETRONAS from Malaysia
Société Camerounaise des Dépôts Pétrôliers (SCDP) from Cameroon
Relevant government actorsGovernment of Chad, Government of Cameroon, Committee for the Advancement of the Bagyeli people of Bipindi and Kribi (CODEBABIK)
International and Financial InstitutionsThe World Bank (WB) from United States of America
European Investment Bank (EIB)
COFACE from France
ABN Amro Bank (ABN AMRO) from Netherlands
Calyon from Thailand
Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im US) from United States of America
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersIndigenous Bakola Pygmies of Cameroon, Yaounde Peoples Tribunal, Foundation for Environment and Development in Cameroon (FEDEV), Fondation camerounaise d'actions rationalisées et de formation sur l'environnement (FOCARFE), Bantu Communities (Cameroon), ACDE (Cameroon), Fondation Camerounaise d'Actions Rationalisées et de formation sur l'Environnement: FOCARFE (Cameroon), Survival International, Center for the Environment and Development (CED), Friends of the Earth (Cameroon), Forest Peoples Programme (FPP), Planet Survey Sustainable Environment Development (PSEDD), Civil Society Challenge Fund (UK), EDF (USA), Both Ends (Netherlands)
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingIndigenous groups or traditional communities
International ejos
Local ejos
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Forms of MobilizationCommunity-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Public campaigns
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Oil spills, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution, Infectious diseases
OtherWater sources were contaminated, exposing residents to various health problems (skin diseases, diarrhoea, etc.)
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Specific impacts on women
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCorruption
Migration/displacement
Application of existing regulations
The World Bank announced on September 9, 2008 that it was ending its support for the controversial Chad-Cameroon pipeline which was already bult. The announcement came after the Chadian government repaid $65.7 million in outstanding loans to close out its debt to the Bank for the project.
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.September 2008: The decision of the World Bank to stop financing the pipeline project results in irresolvable disagreements with the NDjamena Government in Chad, and ends with the financial institution demanding repayment of a US$ 140 million loan in advance. The Government also breaks its commitments made with Washington bankers to divert part of the oil revenue to a special fund for combating poverty in the country. So, the pipeline was builts and it operates. The idea of Chad constituting an untouchable interest yielding fund for futures generations, with the revenues (which the WB promoted) failed.
Sources and Materials
References

Broken Promises, The Chad Cameroon Oil and Pipeline Project; Profit at Any Cost?, 2001.

The Courier ACP-EU, Doba-Kribi pipeline, How will the Pygmies fare?, January - February 2002.
[click to view]

Forest Peoples Programme, Securing indigenous land rights in the Cameroon oil pipeline zone, July 2007.
[click to view]

CRBM Document, Reform Campaign of World Bank
[click to view]

They Came Here to Kill Us: Militia Attacks and Ethnic Targeting of Civilians in Eastern Chad, Ed. Human Rights Watch, 2007.
[click to view]

Amnesty International UK, Contracting Out of Human Rights: The Chad-Cameroon Pipeline Project, Ed, Amnesty International UK, 2005.
[click to view]

Eriksson H., Hagstrmer B., Chad-Towards Democratisation Or Petro-Dictatorship?, Ed. Nordic Africa Institute, 2005.

FOCARFE, CED, ERA, SeP, Rapport de Monitoring Independant du Projet du Pipeline Tchad Cameroun, 2002.
[click to view]

Mbongo Endeley, Joyce, B.; Sikod, Fondo. The social impact of the Chad-Cameroon oil pipeline: How Industrial Development Affects Gender Relations, Land Tenure, and Local Culture, Ed. THE EDWIN MELLEN PRESS, 2007.
[click to view]

Traversing peoples lives: how the world bank finances community disruption in Cameroon, FoEI 2002.
[click to view]

IFC, report from internal Ombudsman regarding complaints from community members, Chad/Cameroon pipeline, January 2012
[click to view]

Environmental and social documentation on the Pipeline Project by the International Finance Corporation
[click to view]

Links

Following Violent Crackdown in Chad, Environmental Defense & Chadian Association for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights Call on World Bank to Rethink Funds for Chad Pipeline Project, June 2001
[click to view]

Export-Import Bank of the US
[click to view]

Chad / Cameroon pipeline
[click to view]

Centre pour l'environnement et le développement
[click to view]

Chad Cameroon pipeline a study tool and case study
[click to view]

VEGA Envrionmental Consultants
[click to view]

Bantu peoples
[click to view]

Fondation camerounaise pour une action rationalisée des femmes sur l'envrionnement FOCARFE
[click to view]

ExxonMobil Cameroon-Chad
[click to view]

Credit Agricole, Corporate & Investment Bank
[click to view]

ABN Amro
[click to view]

Coface business
[click to view]

European Bank of investment
[click to view]

Le bilan social du pipeline Tchad Cameroun remis en question, Journal du Cameroun, 07/04/2009
[click to view]

Impacts socioeconomiques du projet de pipeline Tchad-Cameroun le long du corridor dans la province du centre (Cameroun), 2002
[click to view]

People's Tribunal - Cameroon on Human Rights violations during the Chad - Cameroon pipeline project , November 2005
[click to view]

Pipeline Tchad-Cameroun, un projet pétrolier controversé, S. Trouvelot, Alternatives Economiques, May 1998
[click to view]

CAMEROUN: Des fuites de pétrole révèlent les défaillances des installations de l'oléoduc, IRIN, January 2007
[click to view]

Cameroon hands Kribi oil terminal contract to Blaze Energy, SCDP, Reuters, 18/11/2015
[click to view]

L'échec du pipeline pétrolier Cameroun - Tchad, 08/06/2010
[click to view]

Pipeline Tchad-Cameroun : le comité de pilotage révèle 3,4 milliards de Fcfa de recettes en 5 mois pour l’Etat , 11/06/2010
[click to view]

A Humanitarian Disaster in the Making Along the Chad-Cameroon Oil Pipeline - Who's Watching?, Alternet, 01/12/2009
[click to view]

[1] Chevron Announces Sale of Interests in Chad and Cameroon, Chevron
[click to view]

Project Description, World Bank
[click to view]

Other Documents

The Chad-Cameroon pipeline under construction makaila.over-blog
[click to view]

Other CommentsThe project was presented as a potential success in managing the revenues of extraction to the benefit of local people and future generation. This failed.
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ContributorLucie Greyl
Last update01/02/2016
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