Oil Spill in Kalaba Community, Nigeria


Description
Kalaba community is located in Yenogoa LGA of Bayelsa state; they host Agip pipeline that delivers crude oil from Tylor creeks. The community have suffered several oil spills between September and November 2011. And was hit again with another oil spill in December, 2011, putting the community livelihoods to a decline. The impacts of the spills were wide spread, destroying farmlands and fish ponds.
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Basic Data
NameOil Spill in Kalaba Community, Nigeria
CountryNigeria
ProvinceBayelsa State
SiteYenogoa Local Government Area
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Oil and gas exploration and extraction
Pollution related to transport (spills, dust, emissions)
Specific CommoditiesCrude oil
Project Details and Actors
Project Details
According to Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) annual statistical bulletin 2010, Agip , has two oil wells in Taylor Creeks of Kalaba community.
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Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population45,000 to 120,000
Start Date09/2011
Company Names or State EnterprisesNigeria Agip Oil Company (NAOC) from Nigeria
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) from Nigeria
Relevant government actorsNigeria National Petroleum Corporation.
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersEnvironmental Rights Action, Trade Unions, Nigeria Media
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Trade unions
Women
Forms of MobilizationCommunity-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Genetic contamination, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Oil spills
Potential: Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Global warming, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)
Potential: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Infectious diseases, Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Militarization and increased police presence, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseMigration/displacement
Under negotiation
Development of Alternatives-An immediate replacement of the burnt pipeline and cleanup of the impacted environment

-Agip should properly consult the community leaders before accessing their forest for cleanup and any other exercise that affects the community

-Government at all levels ensures that NAOC and other extractive companies protect the environment in carrying out their operations.

-Agip should carry out a Joint investigation report to determine the cause of spill, and the extent of damage the fire may have caused.

-Adequate Compensation must be paid to to affected community people.
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.Communitys people farmlands have been destroyed, and no compensation or proper clean up of the spill fire have been carried out.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

Nigeria Federal Government agencies, such as NESREA and NOSDRA. NESREA (National Environmental Standards and Regulation Agency) has responsibility for the protection and development of the environment, biodiversity conservation and sustainable development of Nigerias natural resources in general and environmental technology including coordination, and liaison with, relevant stakeholders within and outsider Nigeria on maters of enforcement of environmental standards, regulations, rules,laws policies and guidelines.

National oil spill Detection and Response Agency (NORSDRA) is saddle with the responsibility to create, nurture and sustain a zero tolerance oil spill incident in the Nigerian Environment. There mission is to: To restore and preserve our environment by ensuring best Oil field, storage and transmission practices in exploration, production and use of oil in the quest to achieve sustainable development in Nigeria.

References

Environmental Testimonies 2011, .
[click to view]

Knee deep in crude. A publication of environmental Rights Action, 2009

Annual Statistical Bulletin: A publication of Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation, 2010

NESREA ACT, Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette. No.92, Vol 94. Lagos ,31st July, 2007

Links

ERA
[click to view]

Performance/2010 ASB 1st edition.pdf
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Field Report #275:New spills from Agip’s pipeline worsen locals’ plight in Kalaba Community
[click to view]

Media Links

Oil Spill In Niger Delta. Kalaba Community
[click to view]

Other CommentsIn order to prevent oil spills, Nigeria law requires oil companies to ensure good oil field practice by complying with internationally recognized standard.

Kalaba community needs full reparation, and Agip should pay damages.

One of the pipelines was laid in the first quarter of 2010 while several others were laid years before. Within the month of September 2011 the community has recorded four major oil spills; one across the Taylor Creek and three others behind the community. Information about the latest three spills reached ERA/FoEN on Friday, 17 September 2011. This came barely five days after Agip clamped the spill point that occurred earlier in the month. The clamping of the earlier spill point took place on the 11 September 2011. Surprisingly three new spills occurred on Friday 17 September 2011. ERA/FoEN was at the site on 20 September 2011
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ContributorAfoke Ohwojeheri
Last update13/01/2015
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