Olive plantation on Krk Island, Croatia

The project of drainage of the marshland for planting olive trees at the island Krk was criticized by local NGOs, because the area is a habitat to protected and endangered animal and plant species and a source of drinking water.

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">In 2011, the Department of Forestry under Ministry of Agriculture ceded the land area of 26 ha of marshland in Krk Island under 50 years concession to private investor Zvonko Brozović. The aim of the concession was a re-cultivation into agriculture area. The concession plan included drainage of the marshland (by the Department of Forestry) and planting of 4,500 olive trees (by the private investor). Initially, the project obtained legal permissions from the State Institute for Nature Protection and Municipality of Dobrinj. Thanks to the pressure by the local CSOs (Eko Kvarner, Jezero, Animalia) the Ministry of Culture and its Nature Protection Inspection Department stopped the project. The opponents of the project stressed that the land was located within the second protection zone of the drinking water sources, in which no agriculture activities were allowed. Furthermore, the marshland area was suggested to became a part of the National Ecological Network NATURA 2000 as a habitat to various protected and endangered animal and plant species, and an important bird migration point as declared by the State Institute for Nature Protection. Ironically, it is the same institute that initially approved the project. It was estimated that the project would particularly negatively affect the endangered turtles species. Namely, the turtles have acquired the habit to lay their eggs in the old drainage canals surrounding the project area, which was planned to be cleaned for irrigation purposes. The marshland area also provides various ecosystem services to the local citizens, such as a regulation of local micro-climate. The cleaning of the canals started in August 2012. Shortly after, the government temporarily stopped the process due to the necessity for more detailed assessment and valorisation of the project area in accordance to the European Union regulations on the use of the NATURA 2000 areas. The opponents of the project took advantage of the fact that Croatian was entering the EU at that time to demand from the government to conduct further biological studies that would approve great biological and environmental importance the area and its permanent protection. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Olive plantation on Krk Island, Croatia</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/croatia">Croatia</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Primorsko-goranska County </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Dobrinj, Njivice, Mali Lug</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture and Livestock Management)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Wetlands and coastal zone management<br /> Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp<br /> Land acquisition conflicts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br /><a href='/commodity/fruits-and-vegetables'>Fruits and Vegetables</a><br />Olive trees</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">4,500 olive trees was planned to be planted on 26 ha of the land</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>26</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>250,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>2000 directly affected </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>28/03/2011</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>The Ministry of Agriculture- Department of Forestry; The State Institute for Nature Protection; The Regional department of construction and environment protection of Primorsko-goranska region; The Municipality of Dobrinj; The Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia- Department of Nature Protection Inspection</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Eko Kvarner http://www.ekokvarner.hr/; Jezero; Animalia http://www.zastita-prirode-animalia.hr/; Zelena Patrola http://zelenapatrola.com/; Public Institution for Managing Protected Nature Areas http://www.ju-priroda.hr/</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>LOW (some local organising)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>International ejos<br /> Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Local scientists/professionals</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Desertification/Drought, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>The olive plantation plan includes use of fertilizers</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Stopped</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>New legislation<br /> Under negotiation<br /> Application of existing regulations<br /> New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study<br /> Project temporarily suspended<br /> Application of EU envirnomental regulations after Croatia's access to the EU</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>The opponents of the project demanded its cancellation. The fact Croatian was accessing EU at that time favored their solution to the situation. </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Not Sure</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>Further devastation of the land area was stopped in 2012, while Croatia entered the EU on 1st of July 2013 which created the conditions to finally put the marshland area under the permanent protection within Natura 2000 network. However, the land is officially still under the concession granted to the investor. The opponents stressed that the state bureaucracy system failed to find the solution to the investor situation, which could be exchange of original 26 ha with some other area on the Krk Island apt for agricultural production. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> CRO-NEN - Building-up the national ecological network as a part of the Pan-European Ecological network & the Natura 2000 network<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.dspPage&n_proj_id=2201&docType=pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Current status of the practical implementation of ecological networks in Croatia<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.ecologicalnetworks.eu/documents/publications/ken/CroatiaKENWP2.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Eko Kvarner: Brozovićeve masline ugrozit će rezerve pitke vode u Malom lugu<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.novilist.hr/Vijesti/Regija/Otoci/Eko-Kvarner-Brozoviceve-masline-ugrozit-ce-rezerve-pitke-vode-u-Malom-lugu?articlesrclink=related" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Preorane livade naljutile ekologe i rastjerale ptice<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.novilist.hr/Vijesti/Regija/Otoci/Preorane-livade-naljutile-ekologe-i-rastjerale-ptice?articlesrclink=related" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Greška u koracima: Brozović je znao što kupuje<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.novilist.hr/Vijesti/Regija/Otoci/Greska-u-koracima-Brozovic-je-znao-sto-kupuje?articlesrclink=related" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Piršić: I Županija je u krčku močvaru "investirala" 50.000 kuna<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.novilist.hr/Vijesti/Regija/Otoci/Pirsic-I-Zupanija-je-u-krcku-mocvaru-investirala-50.000-kuna" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Documentary by Zelena Patrola<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=59ODnrv2GPU" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>The result of work on olive plantation on Krk Island</strong> President of CSO Jezero in the devastated marshland area<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/1._Converted_land.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Jovanka Spiric, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, vankajo(at)gmail.com</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>15/05/2016</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>