ProCana Sugar Plantation, Limpopo, Mozambique

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">On the 10th of October, 2007, the Mozambican government contracted 30,000 hectares in the Massinger district of the southern province of Gaza to CAMEC/ProCana for ethanol production. The area was to be monoculture planted with sugar cane and irrigated with water from the Massingir dam on the Elephants river – to the detriment of farmers water supply downstream. Under the Land Law of 1997 the land was leased for 50 years (renewable). The Ministry of Tourism, however, had already been promised the same land for the establishment of Limpopo National Park (LNP). Already residents were being involuntarily relocated by Ministry for the establishment of the park, and ProCana’s claims on the same land furthered villagers’ frustrations. Tensions rose between the Ministry of Tourism and the Ministry of Agriculture, as well as between the national and district government. When villagers aligned with LNP (against ProCana) the agreement fell apart and in January of 2009 the government revoked the concession due to non-compliance with contractual clauses. It is still possible that other investors may acquire the project. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>ProCana Sugar Plantation, Limpopo, Mozambique</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/mozambique">Mozambique</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Gaza</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Limpopo National Park/Massingir District</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>MEDIUM regional level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture and Livestock Management)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Agro-fuels and biomass energy plants<br /> Establishment of reserves/national parks<br /> Land acquisition conflicts<br /> Dams and water distribution conflicts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/sugar'>Sugar</a><br /><a href='/commodity/ethanol'>Ethanol</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">million liters of ethanol annually from 30,000 hectares, with an investment of $510 million, as well as a factory which will create 7,000 jobs and an annual income of 40 million. It would have used 108 billion gallons of water annually. </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>30,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>510,000,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>9.000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/central-african-mining-and-exploration-company'>Central African Mining and Exploration Company <small>(CAMEC)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-kingdom'><small>United Kingdom</small></a> - <small> Defunct November 2009 </small><br /><a href='/company/procana'>ProCana</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/mozambique'><small>Mozambique</small></a><br /><a href='/company/bioenergy-africa'>BioEnergy Africa</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/south-africa'><small>South Africa</small></a> - <small> now Sable Mining in British Virgin Islands </small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Mozambique: Agricultural Minister Erasmo Muhate, Deputy Planning and Development Minister Victor Bernardo, Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Agriculture, Council of Ministries</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">International and Financial Institutions</td><td><a href='/institution/world-bank'>The World Bank <small>(WB)</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>National Organization of Mozambican peasants, pastoralists, JA (Justiça Ambiental), http://ja4change.wordpress.com/2012/, UNAC (uniãoNacional dos, Limpopo National Park Camponeses), Centro Terra Viva</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>LOW (some local organising)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> Landless peasants<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Pastoralists<br /> Conservationists, Workers from the Limpopo National Park</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Resisting displacement, reports, meetings , debates, organizing of commissions (commissions to suggest alternatives were set up)</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>reduced water flow to farmers downstream of Massingir Dam.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Malnutrition</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Land dispossession<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Stopped</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Strengthening of participation<br /> Application of existing regulations<br /> Withdrawal of company/investment<br /> Project temporarily suspended</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Proper consultation and Environmental Impact Assessments. Respect for the law. Recognition of overlapping community rights.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Not Sure</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>Concession revoked by the council of ministers due to non-compliance with contractual clauses. CAMEC decided to shift investment away from biofuels. yet other investors acquiring the project is still possible, and the company still owns land in the region.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Mozambiques Land Law of 1997<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Hanlon, Joseph, 2011, 'Understanding Land Investment Deals in Africa; Country Report: Mozambique'<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.oaklandinstitute.org/sites/oaklandinstitute.org/files/OI_country_report_mozambique_0.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Milgroom, Jessica, 2013, 'Policy processes of a land grab – Enactment, context and misalignment in Massingir, Mozambique'<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.plaas.org.za/plaas-publication/ldpi-34" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Fig Monsalve ROAPE 2011.pdf<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.tni.org/sites/www.tni.org/files/Borras" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Borras, Saturnino M., David Fig, Sofia Monsalve Suarez, 'The politices of agrofuels and mega-land and water deals: insights from the ProCana case, Mozambique'<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.tni.org/sites/www.tni.org/files/Borras" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Mother Jones, 'Ethanol's African Land Grab<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2009/03/ethanols-african-landgrab?page=2" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Land Grabbing In Kenya And Mozambique: A Report On Two Research Missions – And A Human Rights Analysis Of Land Grabbing. FIAN.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://tinyurl.com/nbw8xqk" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Mozambique government cancels contract with Procana<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.macauhub.com.mo/en/2010/01/04/8355/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Aliza Tuttle</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>01/07/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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