Programme of Triangular Cooperation for Developing Agriculture in the Tropical Savannahs of Mozambique (ProSavana)

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The Brazilian government together with Japan plan to complete a large-scale agribusiness project in Northern Mozambique. The project will take place over an area od 14 million ha. and will be exploited by Brazilian agribusiness companies for the production of soybeans, maize and other commodity crops that will be exported by Japanese multinationals. ProSavana was inspired by a similar project carried out by the Brazilian and Japanese governments in the Brazilian Cerrado, where they laid the foundation for a system based on large-scale industrial farming of monocrops. This Brazilian project led to a degradation of the environment and the near extinction of indigenous communities living in the affected areas. The Nacala Corridor was chosen because its savannah has similar characteristics to the Brazilian Cerrado, in terms of its climate and agroecology, and because of the ease with which products can be exported.</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">Importing this same technology for tropical agriculture, ProSavana is aimed at increasing productivity in the Nacala Corridor, where 3.6 million people live in the rural areas, mainly practicing subsistence agriculture. This number represents a much higher population density than in Brazil or other countries where agriculture has been modernized. <br/><br/> The project master plan states that ProSavana will foster family agriculture, but CSOs and local peasants see the project preparing the terrain for international investors to enter in the country. While Brazil claims that its South-South Development cooperation does not impose conditionality, doesn’t interfere in internal affairs, is demand- driven, non-profit and participatory, evidence from the Prosavana program shows that it like classic colonialism, it is commercially motivated, instituted from the top-down and conceived by donors rather than by local needs. <br/><br/>There are already some projects by foreign investors operating in the corridor, such as Suni from South Africa (600 ha. in Nacololo district) or Nitori Holding Company from Japan (20,000 ha. in Malema district). While the players try to legitimate the project assuring there is plenty of available land in the region, and that only abandoned land will be targeted, the peasants organization UNAC says that the local reality shows that such vast areas of land are not freely available and are currently used by peasants practicing shifting cultivation. They issued the following statement regarding the project " “Ever since hearing about the ProSAVANA Programme, we have noticed a lack of information and transparency from the main stakeholders.(…)We, peasant farmers, condemn the way in which the ProSAVANA programme was drafted and the way it is intended to be implemented in Mozambique, which has been characterised by reduced <br/><br/>transparency and the exclusion of civil society organisations throughout the process, especially peasant organisations. Following a comprehensive analysis of ProSAVANA, we peasant farmers have concluded that:· ProSAVANA is a result of a top-down policy, which does not take into consideration the demands, dreams and basic concerns of peasants, particularly those within the Nacala Corridor (UNAC, Oct.11,2012)”. <br/><br/> The project is composed of 3 components with activities planned until 2019. The first two, the research phase and the development of a master plan are already taking place. Massive areas of land on a long-term lease basis are being offered for about US$1/ha per year. <br/><br/>Two big investments in the Nacala corridor, while not officially associated with the program, are being carried out by Vale, the Brazilian mining company that operates the Moatize coal mine in Tete province. One investment aims to rehabilitate the export terminal port in Nacala and the railway that runs from Nacala to Tete, passing through Malawi.<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Programme of Triangular Cooperation for Developing Agriculture in the Tropical Savannahs of Mozambique (ProSavana)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/mozambique">Mozambique</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Nampula, Niassa and Zambezia in the Nacala corridor</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>ProSavana covers 19 districts in Cabo Delgado, Nampula, Niassa and Zambezia Provinces </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture and Livestock Management)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Intensive food production (monoculture and livestock)<br /> Land acquisition conflicts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/cotton'>Cotton</a><br /><a href='/commodity/sugar'>Sugar</a><br /><a href='/commodity/corn-maize'>Corn/Maize</a><br /><a href='/commodity/soybeans'>Soybeans</a><br />Other crops</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">The project has three components: ProSavana - PI (research project) that began in April 2011 and lasts until March 2016; ProSavana - PD (master plan) running from March 2012 until 2014; and ProSavana - PEM (extension and design) taking place between May 2012 and May 2019.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>14,000,000 ha (corridor)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>36,207,210</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2012</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/gv-agro-a-subsidiary-of-brazils-fundacao-getulio-vargas'>GV Agro, a subsidiary of Brazils Fundação Getulio Vargas</a><br /><a href='/company/hoyo-hoyo-agribusiness'>Hoyo Hoyo Agribusiness</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/portugal'><small>Portugal</small></a><br /><a href='/company/africa-century-agriculture'>Africa Century Agriculture </a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-kingdom'><small>United Kingdom</small></a><br /><a href='/company/rei-do-agro'>Rei do Agro </a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-states-of-america'><small>United States of America </small></a><br /><a href='/company/suni'>Suni</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/south-africa'><small>South Africa</small></a> - <small>600 hectares </small><br /><a href='/company/nitori-holdings'>Nitori Holdings</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/japan'><small>Japan</small></a> - <small>granted a concession to grow cotton on 20,000 hectares of land, and the people who live there will be resettled elsewhere</small><br /><a href='/company/agromoz'>Agromoz</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/mozambique'><small>Mozambique</small></a> - <small>Producing soy on 10,000 hectares</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Brazil, Japan and Mozambique Governments<br/><br/>The Ministry of Agriculture of Mozambique<br/><br/>Brazil Minister of Exterior Relations<br/><br/>Brazil's agricultural research agency, Embrapa<br/><br/>Mozambique's Institute for Agricultural Research (IIAM)<br/><br/></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">International and Financial Institutions</td><td><a href='/institution/japan-international-cooperation-agency'>Japan International Cooperation Agency <small>(JICA)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/japan'><small>Japan</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>GRAIN, National Peasants Union (of Mozambique) (from La Via Campesina), Nampula Civil Society Provincial Platform (PPOSC-N), Justiça Ambiental, JA!/ FoE Mozambique (Mozambique)<br/><br/>Forum Mulher (Mozambique)<br/><br/>Livaningo (Mozambique)<br/><br/>LPM - Landless Peoples Mouvement (Member of Via Campesina . South Africa)<br/><br/>Agrarian Reform for Food Sovereignty Campaign (Member os Via Campesina - South Africa)<br/><br/>AFRA - Association for Rural Advancement (South Africa)<br/><br/>GRAIN<br/><br/>Friends of the Earth International (FoEI) (*The world's largest grassroots international environmental federation with 74 national member groups and more than two million individual members.)<br/><br/>National Association of Professional Environmentalists (NAPE) / Friends of the Earth (FoE) Uganda<br/><br/>FoE Swaziland<br/><br/>Amigos da Terra Brasil / FoE Brazil<br/><br/>Movimiento Madre Tierra, Honduras<br/><br/>NOAH Friends of the Earth Denmark<br/><br/>GroundWork (South Africa)<br/><br/>Amigos de la Tierra España / Friends of the Earth Spain<br/><br/>Environmental Rights Action / FoE Nigeria<br/><br/>Sahabat Alam Malaysia/ FOE Malaysia<br/><br/>SOBREVIVENCIA, Friends of the Earth Paraguay<br/><br/>CESTA, FOE El Salvador<br/><br/>Earth Harmony Innovators (South Africa)<br/><br/>Ukuvuna (South Africa)<br/><br/>FoE Africa<br/><br/>Kasisi Agricultural Training Centre (Zambia)<br/><br/></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>LOW (some local organising)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> International ejos<br /> Social movements</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of alternative proposals<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Desertification/Drought, Food insecurity (crop damage), Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Malnutrition, Other Health impacts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Land dispossession<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Loss of livelihood, Militarization and increased police presence, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Migration/displacement<br /> Invitation to meetings by the goverment but not real voice is given to those opposing to meetings.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>An open letter signed by 23 Mozambican social organisations and movements and 43 international organisations and addressed to the leaders of Brazil, Japan and Mozambique and signed on 23 May 2013 in Maputo calls for the environmental impact assessment required by law, the immediate suspension of the programme, an official dialogue with all affected segments of society, a priority on family farming and agroecology, and a policy based on food sovereignty.<br/><br/>They also said that all the resources allocated to ProSavana should be "reallocated to efforts to define and implement a National Plan for the Support of Sustainable Family Farming".<br/><br/>They write: "The breadth and grandeur of the ProSavana programme contrast with the failure of the law and the total absence of a deep, broad, transparent and democratic public debate," </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The project is currently active, and some projects have been implemented on the ground. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Nogueira and Ollinaho, 2013. A case study of Brazilian interventions in the Nacala corridor development program<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Cabral, L., Shankland, A., Locke, A., Duran, J. 2012. Mozambique’s agriculture and Brazil’s cerrado model: Miracle or mirage? GREAT Insights, 1 (10), December.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Cabral, L. & Shankland, A. 2013. Narratives of Brazil-Africa Cooperation for Agricultural Development: New Paradigms? FAC Working Paper 051, Future Agricultures Consortium.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> From Rhetoric to Practice in South-South Development Cooperation: A case study of Brazilian interventions in the Nacala corridor <br />development program. Isabela Nogueira and Ossi Ollinaho<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Analysis of the Discourse and Background of the ProSAVANA Programme in Mozambique – focusing on Japan’s role. Dr. Sayaka Funada Classen, Associate Professor, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> GRAIN. Brazilian Megaproject in Mozambique set to displace millions of peasants<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Via Campesina<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> GRAIN. Leaked Prosavana Master Plan Confirms Worst Fears<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> UNAC letter<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Guardian. Mozambique Farmers Fear Brazilian Style Agriculture<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> GRAIN slideshare ProSavana landgrab<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Lucia Arguelles & Leah Temper</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>24/06/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>