Hidroeléctrica Changuinola I (CHAN-75), Bocas del Toro, Panamá

Description
En el 2005, la Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente (ANAM) otorgó permisos a AES-Panamá y AES-Changuinola (subsidiarias de Allied Energy Systems Corporation) para la construcción del Proyecto Hidroeléctrico Changuinola I (Chan-75 o Gavilán).
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Basic Data
NameHidroeléctrica Changuinola I (CHAN-75), Bocas del Toro, Panamá
CountryPanama
ProvinceBocas del Toro
SiteCharco la Pava, Valle el Rey, Guayabal y Changuinola Arriba
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Water Management
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Dams and water distribution conflicts
Water access rights and entitlements
Land acquisition conflicts
REDD/CDM
Specific CommoditiesLand
Electricity
Water
Project Details and Actors
Project Details
Ubicación: cuenca rio Changuinola
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Project Area (in hectares)750
Level of Investment (in USD) 600,000,000.00
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population150,000 - 200000
Start Date05/01/2007
Company Names or State EnterprisesAllied Energy Systems Corporation (AES ) from United States of America
AES Panamá from Panama - concesionaria
AES Corporation (AES) from United States of America
Relevant government actorsAutoridad Nacional del Ambiente (ANAM), Ministerio de Desarrollo Social (MDS), la Defensoría del Pueblo, la Autoridad Nacional de Servicios Públicos (ANSP), Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente (ANA)
International and Financial InstitutionsBanco Centroamericano de Integración Económica (BCIE)
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersComarca Ngäbe-Buglé, Movimiento 10 de Abril, Alianza para la Conservación del Desarrollo (ACD), Cultural Survival, Amnistía Internacional (AI),Asociación Ecologista Panameña (AEP) y la Asociación de Derecho Ambiental (ADA)
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingIndigenous groups or traditional communities
International ejos
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Women
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationDevelopment of alternative proposals
Arguments for the rights of mother nature
Public campaigns
Referendum other local consultations
Refusal of compensation
Objections to the EIA
Development of a network/collective action
Official complaint letters and petitions
Street protest/marches
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Artistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)
Blockades
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Food insecurity (crop damage), Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Air pollution, Noise pollution, Other Environmental impacts
Potential: Desertification/Drought, Global warming
OtherImpacto directo al Parque Nacional la Amistad (PILA), Patrimonio Mundial de la Humanidad (UNESCO, 1983) y al Humedal de San

San Pond Sak, Sitio Ramsar.
Health ImpactsVisible: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Other Health impacts
Potential: Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..)
OtherEnfermedades respiratorias a niños indígenas Ngobe causadas por el polvo durante la construcción.
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Increase in violence and crime
Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Other socio-economic impacts
OtherDebido a la cercanía del Proyecto Hidroeléctico con el Cinturón Deformado del Norte, fallas y fracturas geológicas del área aumenta el riesgo de temblores y terremotos.
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Criminalization of activists
Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
Migration/displacement
Repression
Strengthening of participation
Violent targeting of activists
Application of existing regulations
Development of AlternativesEl cese de concesiones para más proyectos hidroeléctricos en la cuenca del Río Changuinola hasta no estar delimitadas las comarcas indígenas e identificadas las tierras anexas con posible afectación.

Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.Aún con la movilizción indígena, de ONG nacionales e internacionales, con la resolución de la Corte Interamericana de derechos humanos y la visita del relator especial de la ONU, el proyecto CHAN I ya está construido
Sources and Materials
Legislations

Carta Interamericana de Derechos Humanos
[click to view]

Petición admitida presentada ante la CIDH
[click to view]

References

Cordero, S. Montenegro, R. Mafla, M. Burgués, I. Reid, J. (2006) Análisis costo - beneficio de cuatro proyectos hidroeléctrico en la Cuenca Changuinola-Teribe
[click to view]

Reporte de James Anaya, Relator especial ONU
[click to view]

Barber, Jesica (2008) Paradigms and Perceptions. A Chronology and Analysis of the Events of the Chan-75. Hydroelectric Project
[click to view]

Stein, Jeffrey (2007) Percepciones de impacto social del PH CHAN-75
[click to view]

AIDA. Grandes Represas en América. Peor el remedio que la enfermedad?
[click to view]

Links

Diario Web Centroamérica (2011). Panamá cancela concesión de hidroeléctrica.
[click to view]

International Rivers. ACD Comments on Changuinola 1 (Chan 75) Large Hydro Project (Panama)
[click to view]

Servindi, Panamá: Relator ONU se reúne con comunidades afectadas por proyecto hidroeléctrico Chan 75
[click to view]

CorpWatch (2012). Damming the Ngäbe: Aftermath of an AES Power Project in Panama
[click to view]

Inauguran Central Hidroeléctrica Changuinola I
[click to view]

Cultural Survival (2007) Dam Nation
[click to view]

International Rivers. Dams Threaten Biodiversity and Indigenous People in Panama
[click to view]

International Amnesty (2011). Indigenous families homes to be flooded.
[click to view]

Afectados por PH CHAN I piden mediación de la Defensoría para indemnización
[click to view]

Carta a la Administradora General del Ambiente (ANAM)
[click to view]

AES Inaugura Proyecto Hidroeléctrico con Actos Discriminatorios y Presencia
[click to view]

Media Links

Propuesta del Pueblo Ngabe al Gobierno Panameño. 29-2-2012
[click to view]

Chang 75 Cuando los derechos indígenas son relegados
[click to view]

Other Documents

Hidroeléctrica CHAN I
[click to view]

Afectados por CHAN I piden indemnización manifestación ante la Defensoría de los Habitantes
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorGrettel Navas, Fundación Neotrópica
Last update16/09/2014
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