Residents of Piquiá de Baixo, Maranhao, Brazil press Vale and pig iron companies for resettling them in new neighborhood due to intense pollution.

Description
The case involves about 380 families (1,100 people) living in a village surrounded by 5 pig iron industries: 1) Vienna Steel S / A, 2) Steel Maranhao S / A - SIMASA, 3) Co. steel Valley Pindare 4) Pig Iron Maranhao Ltda. - FERGUMAR; and 5) Gusa Nordeste S / A, beyond the railroad and warehouse ore of Vale SA. The town was founded in the 70s. The industries came in the second half of the 80s.
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Basic Data
NameResidents of Piquiá de Baixo, Maranhao, Brazil press Vale and pig iron companies for resettling them in new neighborhood due to intense pollution.
CountryBrazil
ProvinceMaranhao
SiteAçailandia
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Mineral processing
Specific CommoditiesSteel
Iron ore
Project Details and Actors
Project Details
- The Gusa Nordeste is a plant that produces up to 360,000 tons of pig iron per year.
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Project Area (in hectares)38
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Potential Affected Population380 families (1,100 people)
Start Date01/01/2005
Company Names or State EnterprisesVale S.A. (Vale) from Brazil
Viena Siderúrgica S/A (Vienna Steel S/A) from Brazil - Polluting company
Siderúrgica do Maranhão S/A (Steel Maranhao S/A) (SIMASA) from Brazil - polluting company
Cia. Siderúrgica Vale do Pindaré (Pindare's Valley Steel Co) from Brazil - Polluting company
Ferro Gusa do Maranhão Ltda (Pig Iron of Maranhao Ltda) (FERGUMAR) from Brazil - Polluting company
Gusa Nordeste S/A from Brazil - Polluting company
Sindicato das Indústrias de Ferro Gusa do Maranhão (Sindycate of Pig Iron of Maranhão) (SIFEMA) from Brazil - Representative organization of pig iron industries accused of polluting the neighborhood.
Relevant government actorsPrefeitura Municipal de Açailândia (Town of Açailândia);

Governo do Estado do Maranhão (Government of the State of Maranhão); Secretaria Estadual do Meio Ambiente do Maranhão (State Secretariat of Environment of Maranhão);

Secretaria Municipal do Meio Ambiente de Açailândia (Municipal Secretariat of Environment of Açailândia);

Ministério Público do Estado do Maranhão (Public Ministry of the State of Maranhão);

Defensoria Pública do Estado do Maranhão (Public Defender of the State of Maranhão);
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersAssociação de Moradores de Piquiá de Baixo (Association of Residents of Piquiá de Baixo); Paróquia São João Batista de Açailândia (Parish of St. John the Baptist of Açailândia);

Diocese de Imperatriz (Diocese of Empress); Centro de Defesa da Vida e dos Direitos Humanos de Açailândia Carmen Bascarán (Center for the Defense of Life and Human Rights of Açailândia); Worldwide Human Rights Movement - FIDH
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups MobilizingInternational ejos
Local ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Trade unions
Local scientists/professionals
Religious groups
Forms of MobilizationCommunity-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Public campaigns
Shareholder/financial activism.
Street protest/marches
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Potential: Fires, Global warming, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Accidents, Occupational disease and accidents, Deaths
Potential: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Violations of human rights
Potential: Loss of landscape/sense of place
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
Negotiated alternative solution
Strengthening of participation
Under negotiation
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
A resettlement plan
Development of AlternativesThe community demands resettlement in another area free of pollution.
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.Despite successive agreements for resettling the community, this has not yet occurred.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

SANTOS, André (Juiz). Sentença relativa ao processo nº 2305-62.2005.8.10.0022. 19 dez. 2013. (SANTOS, André (Judge). Judgment concerning case No. 2305-62.2005.8.10.0022. 19 December 2013.)
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MINISTÉRIO PÚBLICO DO ESTADO DO MARANHÃO. Compromisso de Ajustamento de Conduta, 24 ago. 2012. (PROSECUTOR OF STATE OF MARANHÃO. Commitment Adjustment of Conduct 24 August).
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References

FEDERAÇÃO INTERNACIONAL DOS DIREITOS HUMANOS, JUSTIÇA GLOBAL BRASIL e JUSTIÇA NOS TRILHOS. Brasil: Quanto valem os direitos humanos? Os impactos sobre os direitos humanos relacionados à indústria da mineração e da siderurgia em Açailândia. (Brazil: How good are human rights? The impacts on human rights related to mining and the steel industry in Açailândia). FIDH: Paris: mai. 2011. 104 p.

MAPA DE CONFLITOS ENVOLVENDO INJUSTIÇA AMBIENTAL E SAÚDE NO BRASIL. MA - Indústria Guseira, Contaminação da Água, Falta de Segurança e Condições Impróprias à Vida e à Saúde dos Moradores do Distrito Industrial de Pequiá (Açailândia). (MAP OF CONFLICTS INVOLVING HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL INJUSTICE IN BRAZIL. MA - pig iron Industry, Water Contamination, Unsafe Conditions and Unfit to Life and Health of Residents of the Industrial District of Pequiá - Açailândia).
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FAUSTINO, Cristina e FURTADO, Fabrina. Mineração e Violações de Direitos: O Projeto Ferro Carajás S11D, da Vale S.A - Relatório da Missão de Investigação e Incidência. Açailândia: Plataforma Dhesca Brasil: CASA: Justiça Global, 2013. 129 p. (FAUSTINO, Cristina and FURTADO, Fabrina. Mining and Rights Violations: The Carajás Iron Project S11D, Vale SA - Report of Mission Research and Advocacy. Açailândia: Platform Dhesca Brazil: HOME: Global Justice, 2013 129 p..)
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SILVA, Antônio Rafael. Parecer médico acerca dos problemas de saúde que afetem a População do povoado do Piquiá no município de Açailândia-MA. Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Centro de Referência em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Núcleo de Estudos em Medicina Tropical da Pré-amazônia. 06 jun. 2011. 18 p. (SILVA, Antonio Rafael. Medical opinion about health issues affecting the population of the village in the municipality of Piquiá Açailândia-MA. Federal University of Maranhão, Reference Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Center for Studies in Tropical Medicine Pre-amazon. 06 June 2011. 18 p.)
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Links

ASSOCIAÇÃO COMUNITÁRIA DOS MORADORES DO PIQUIÁ. Sindicato das Indústrias de Ferro Gusa desrespeita prazos de acordo e direitos de moradores. Combate Racismo Ambiental, 11 abr. 2014. (COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION OF RESIDENTS OF PIQUIÁ. Industries Union of Pig Iron violates terms of agreement and rights of residents. Combating Environmental Racism 11 April 2014).
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REDE JUSTIÇA NOS TRILHOS. Moradores de Piquiá de Baixo participam de Assembleia dos Acionistas da Vale S.A. (JUSTICE NETWORK ON RAILS. Residents of Piquiá Low participate in Shareholders' Meeting of Vale SA). 11 abr. 2014.
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REDE JUSTIÇA NOS TRILHOS. Associação Comunitária dos Moradores de Piquiá de Baixo denunciam atraso no processo de reassentamento. Blog Piquiá de Baixo, 06 mar. 2014. (JUSTICE ON RAILS. Community Association of Residents of Piquiá de Baixo denounce delay in the process of resettlement. Blog Piquiá de Baixo, 06 March).
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Media Links

Young residents of Piquiá de Baixo with polluting industry in the background.
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Residents suffer from pollution generated by iron pig plants.
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Headquarters of the Association of Residents of Piquiá de Baixo.
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Protest calls for rapid resettlement
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Representatives of the residents and their supporters make complaints during assembly of shareholders of Vale.
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Residents of Piquiá de Baixo protesting because of impasse on the purchase of the land where the new neighborhood will be built.
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Meta Information
ContributorDiogo Rocha, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, [email protected]
Last update05/09/2014
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