Partial Fauna Reserve of Pama and the access to sacred sites, Burkina Faso

The access of the populations to their sacred places is restricted inside the Partial Pama Reserve. The prevention of poaching undermines their rights and considers only the interests of the tour operators.


Description

RESUME en FRANCAIS ci-dessous                                        The Partial Fauna Reserve of Pama was created under the French colonial administration in 1955 for the promotion of hunting tourism. The conflict is happening since 1996 when the State of Burkina Faso granted concessions over the reserve to private tour operators and harden the conditions of access for the local populations.  The management of the Reserve is mainly concerned about preventing poaching. It favours the interests of the companies while the local inhabitants’ demands are disregarded.

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Basic Data
NamePartial Fauna Reserve of Pama and the access to sacred sites, Burkina Faso
CountryBurkina Faso
ProvinceKompienga Province
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Biodiversity conservation conflicts
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Establishment of reserves/national parks
Specific CommoditiesLocals' spiritual and religious rights
Tourism services
Live Animals
Biological resources
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsNumerous tour operators share the fruitful market of hunting tourism in the Partial Reserve of Pama. These private actors showed their concern about the rise of gold mining. The hunting tourism is a cherished sector by the government as it is considered to be a source for important economic income and it is aimed to be further exploited [2]. The business is to be left on private investors and tour operators.



Le tourisme cynégétique est un secteur économique très encouragé par le gouvernement du Burkina. Ce dernier continue de laisser le business aux mains des acteurs privés. Les tours opérateurs de la réserve de Pama ont manifesté leur préoccupation face au développment des mines artisanales.
Project Area (in hectares)223,700
Type of PopulationRural
Start Date01/01/1996
Company Names or State EnterprisesSpear Safari from South Africa - Running a concession in Pama Central north
Wild World Adventures from United States of America - Concession in the Presidential Area
Nahouri Safari from Burkina Faso - Concession in the center South of the Reserve
Relevant government actorsDirection Générale des Eaux et Forêts, technical department of the Ministry of the Environment (officially in charge of the reserve's management)
International and Financial InstitutionsUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO ) - Not involved but reference to M&B Program as legitimation of the locals' claims
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersAssociation Faune et Développement au Burkina - http://www.afaudeb.org/ ;

Cadre d'action des juristes de l'environnement/Burkina Faso - https://cajeburkina.wordpress.com/ ;

Indigenous peoples’ and community conserved territories and areas (ICCAs) - http://www.iccaconsortium.org/?page_id=2433

Aires et Territoires du Patrimoine Autochtone Communautaire (APACs)
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LATENT (no visible organising at the moment)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingIndigenous groups or traditional communities
International ejos
Local ejos
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationBoycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Development of a network/collective action
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity)
Potential: Soil contamination
Othercyanide and mercury pollution from illegal gold mining
Health ImpactsPotential: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Displacement, Land dispossession, Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Increase in violence and crime
Potential: Loss of livelihood, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..)
Otherinsecurity of the local communities over their land-rights
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCorruption
Repression
Strengthening of participation
Development of AlternativesIt's necessary to legally overcome the divide between the Western imported conception of nature and the one of the native peoples. A national mobilization is in progress for the legal recognition of a Gourmantché land near Pama (together with 8 other territories) as an indigenous peoples' and community conserved territory (ICCA). In the longer term the objective is to constitute a national organization able to protect populations' traditions and rights over their natural resources.

Dépasser les conceptions divergentes sur la nature, en attribuant un statut légal aux lieux naturels pour que les populations locales puissent avoir un pouvoir de decision sur ces derniers. Une mobilisation nationale est en cours pour la reconnaissance légale d'un territoire gourmantché près de Pama (avec 8 autres territories) en tant que Patrimoine Autochtone Communautaire (APAC). Le but est sur le long terme de mettre en place une organisation nationale qui protège les traditions des populations et leur accès aux ressources naturelles.
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.The situation has not changed for the Gourmantché but their mobilisation and claims are now formulated at the national level.

La situation n'a en rien changé pour les Gourmantché, mais leur mobilisation et réclamations aujourd'hui s'articulent au niveau national.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

Ministère de l'Environnement, Direction des Forets, Situation des forets classées du Burkina Faso et plan de réhabilitation, Octobre 2007
[click to view]

Banatié Abel Koussoube, Reglementation de la protection de la faune et des droits de populations locales, Fevrier 2015
[click to view]

References

Kaboré, Alexis, Brousse des uns, aire protégée des autres Histoire du peuplement, perceptions de la nature et politique des aires protégées dans le Gourma burkinabè: l’exemple de la Réserve partielle de faune de Pama, PhD Disseration, 2010
[click to view]

[1] Kaboré, Alexis, “Au-delà des ressources: revendications religieuses et territoriales sur les aires protégées chez les Gourmantché du Burkina Faso" chapitre 4, in Résistances culturelles et revendications territoriales des peuples autochtones, Ed. Hoffmann-Schickel K.

Links

[2] Mamady Zango, Tournée du ministre de l’Environnement à l’Est : Une immersion de 48H pour s’imprégner des réalités, 09/04/2017
[click to view]

Burkina Faso: Zone de tourisme cynégétique de Pama - Trois braconniers pincés dans le parc présidentiel, AllAfrica, May 1st, 2013
[click to view]

Planète Burkina (en Français)
[click to view]

Paténéma Oumar Ouedraogo, Tourisme cynégétique au Burkina : A la découverte de la merveille présidentielle de Pama, Ouaga.com, 24/04/2013
[click to view]

Other Documents

Savanna in the Partial Reserve of Pama Source: wikivisually.com
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorCamila Rolando Mazzuca, Dr. Alexis Kaboré
Last update11/05/2017
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