The Rio Tinto Company and the massacre of 1888, Andalusia, Spain

The Rio Tinto company was formed in 1873. In February 1888 a big demonstration against sulphurous gases produced by the combustion of copper pyrites led to a massacre carried out by the Army.


Description

Como narran Felix Talego y Juan Diego Pérez Cebada, el 4 de febrero de 1888 una manifestación pacífica de doce mil personas que, al grito de “Abajo los humos”, se había concentrado en la plaza del ayuntamiento de Rio Tinto convocada por la Liga Contra las Calcinaciones, terminó en tragedia. Una descarga de fusilería del ejército causó la muerte a unas doscientas personas. Eran mujeres, hombres, niños, ancianos, campesinos, mineros, vecinos, acompañados por una banda de música. Procedían de todos los rincones de la cuenca minera onubense,  “el país de los Humos”. Estaban unidos en la Liga contra las Calcinaciones y en las incipientes organizaciones sindicales. Exigían mejoras en el trabajo y, simultáneamente, el fin de la lluvia ácida (anhídrido sulfúrico), provocada por la calcinación al aire libre de piritas a una escala sin precedentes, en las llmadas "teleras". El cobre así obtenido nutría la demanda mundial de la industria en expansión. 

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Basic Data
NameThe Rio Tinto Company and the massacre of 1888, Andalusia, Spain
CountrySpain
ProvinceHuelva, Adalucía
SiteRio Tinto
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Mineral processing
Specific CommoditiesCopper
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsRio Tinto is an Australian-British multinational and one of the world's largest metals and mining corporations. The company was founded in 1873, by Hugh Matheson. A consortium of investors purchased the old mine on the Rio Tinto, in Huelva, Spain, from the Spanish government. This is where the company's name comes from. For many years the technique used in Spainn was to burn the copper pyrites in the open air, in "teleras". The sulphurous fumes led to protests by farmers and mine workers and their families. This led in turn to the massacre of 4th February 1988, in which the company was complicit. In 1954 the company disinvested from Spain, and the Rio Tinto copper mines went back slowly to Spanish ownership. The company focused mainly on Northern Rodhesia (later Zambia). It has grown to place itself among the world leaders in the production of aluminium, iron ore, copper, uranium, coal, and diamonds. It never acknowledged liability for the damage to human lives and nature done in Rio Tinto, Huelva.
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population40,000
Start Date1877
Company Names or State EnterprisesRio Tinto PLC from Australia
Relevant government actorsGovernor of Huelva

Spanish Army (Regimiento de Pavia)
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersLiga anti Humos
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Industrial workers
Informal workers
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Trade unions
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of alternative proposals
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Street protest/marches
Strikes
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Fires, Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Mine tailing spills
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Occupational disease and accidents, Other Health impacts
Potential: Accidents, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCriminalization of activists
Deaths
Court decision (undecided)
Repression
Violent targeting of activists
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.There was no compensation (or even legal acknowledgment) of the mass killings. No court proceedings against army officers. The burning of pyrites (and production of sulphurous gases) continued still for a few years although other technologies were available.
Sources and Materials
References

David Avery, Not on Queen Victoria's Birthday: Story of the Rio Tinto Mines. 464 pages. HarperCollins Distribution Services (1974).

Ximo Guillem-Llobat. Medical Experts and Agnotology in the Fumes Controversy of the Huelva Copper Mines (1888–1890). Medical history 61(03):424-443
[click to view]

Juan Diego Pérez Cebada, Tierra Devastada. Historia de la contaminación minera. (en las grandes cuencas de minerales no ferrosos hasta 1945). Madrid: Editorial Sinteses, 2014 (283 pp).

Gérard Chastagnaret (2017): De fumées et de sang. Pollution minière et massacre de masse. Andalousie – XXe siècle. Madrid, Casa de Velázquez. pp. XXIV + 423.
[click to view]

Maria Dolores Ferrero Blanco, Capitalismo minero y resistencia rural en el suroeste andaluz. Riotinto, 1873-1900, Universidad de Huelva, 1999 ISBN 84-88751-61-3

Links

El País. Los muertos sin nombre de Riotinto. La primera protesta ecologista de la historia costó más de cien vidas en 1888. LOLA GALÁN. 25 MAR 2007
[click to view]

Joan Martinez-Alier, Chapter of the book: Ageyman, J. et al., Just Sustainabilities: Development in an Unequal World, p. 5-7.
[click to view]

Other Documents

The company's founder Hugh Matheson
[click to view]

[click to view]

Evento comemorativo 2018
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorJPC, FT and JMA
Last update09/02/2018
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