Serengeti National Park and its Highway, Tanzania

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The Serengeti National Park (SENAPA), a UNESCO World Heritage Site and Important Bird Area, is a home to over 450 bird species including three Tanzanian endemics and two globally threatened species, the Grey-Crested Helmet Shrike and Karamoja Apalis. It also holds approximately a third of the remaining populations of Ruppells vulture. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> In 2010, the government of Tanzania proposed to develop a 480 km commercial highway linking Lake Victoria with eastern Tanzania that would cut across SENAPA. The proposal was approved before an EIA was conducted for the project. After conducting an EIA it was confirmed that the road was unfit for wildlife management. Nevertheless, the EIA was disregarded. This raised immense opposition from environmentalists. <br/><br/> In June 2011, the government responded by assuring that the 53km stretch through SENAPA would not be paved or upgraded and would remain a gravel road, yet presently it isnt a gravel road but a seasonal dirty track, and any change would have an impact. The government also agreed to consider pursuing a proposed alternative southern route. Nevertheless, implementation of the first section of the road is on going without any clarification on the Serengeti stretch or alternative southern route. <br/><br/> Having a road passing through SENAPA, whether paved or graveled, will affect the ecosystem through increased road kills of large mammals, disruption of the wildebeest migratory route, increased human interference and easy access for poachers as well as loss of revenue through tourism. <br/><br/> In March 2012 the East African Court of Justice ruled against objections by the Tanzanian government and decided that the case presented against the Serengeti highway could proceed to a full trial. The project did not involve all stakeholders in the decision making which should have been done since the park is a trans-boundary resource. Local populations ought to be consulted. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Serengeti National Park and its Highway, Tanzania</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/tanzania">Tanzania</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Arusha Region</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Ngorongoro District</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Infrastructure and Built Environment</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)<br /> Tourism facilities (ski resorts, hotels, marinas)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br /><a href='/commodity/biological-resources'>Biological resources</a><br /><a href='/commodity/tourism-services'>Tourism services</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The government of Tanzania proposed to develop a highway consisting of a 480 km tarmac road to connect Arusha to Musoma, with a 53km stretch of the road passing through Serengeti National Park in northern Tanzania. This road will connect the two major ports on Lake Victoria (Mwanza and Musoma) to Dar es Salaam on Indian Ocean. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> Currently, traffic must travel 418 kilometers around the Serengeti in order to pass from Mwanza to Arusha on a paved road. The new road is expected to decrease this time, enabling larger companies, as well as small farmers and entrepreneurs, to transport goods more easily. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>480000000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2010</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Tanzanian National Roads Agency, Government of Tanzania, , Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">International and Financial Institutions</td><td><a href='/institution/federal-government-of-germany'>Federal Government of Germany</a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/germany'><small>Germany</small></a><br /><a href='/institution/east-african-court-of-justice'>East African Court of Justice <small>(EACJ)</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Nature Kenya, Wildlife Direct, Royal Society for Protection of Birds, African Network for Animal Welfare</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>LATENT (no visible organising at the moment)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>International ejos<br /> Local ejos<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Recreational users<br /> Local scientists/professionals</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Development of alternative proposals<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Arguments for the rights of mother nature</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>-Increased road kills of wildlife.<br/><br/>-Disruption of the wildebeest migratory route.<br/><br/>-Increased human interference within the national park and easy access for poachers. </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Accidents</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>-Loss of revenue from tourism</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Under construction</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Court decision (victory for environmental justice)<br /> Negotiated alternative solution<br /> Application of existing regulations</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>A Land Use Plan supported by Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) could be carried out for Northern Tanzania, to examine options for meeting transport needs while integrating these with environmental objectives and needs of the local people. <br/><br/>An alternative southern route to the section of the highway passing through Serengeti National Park. This route could be more beneficial to the Tanzanian residents and avoid disturbing the Serengeti ecosystem.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>Construction of the first section of the high way is already ongoing without any clear statements from the government on the 53km Serengeti stretch of the road or alternative route.<br/><br/>2. The case presented to the East African Court of Justice against the highway is yet to be decided on.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> The Animal Welfare Act 2008;<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Surface and Marine Transport Regulatory Authority Act 2001;<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania; -The Wildlife Conservation Act 2009;<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Environment Management Act 2004;<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Tourism Act 2008.<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> UVM<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.uvm.edu/shali/Serengeti_Highway.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Birdlife<br/><a class="refanch small" href="www.birdlife.org/.../serengeti-highway" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Wild Life Direct<br/><a class="refanch small" href="baraza.wildlifedirect.org/.../serengeti-highway" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> RSPB<br/><a class="refanch small" href="www.rspb.org.uk" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Serengeti Watch<br/><a class="refanch small" href="www.serengetiwatch.org" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> RSPB<br/><a class="refanch small" href="www.rspb.org.uk /our work /casework" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Serah Munguti</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>03/05/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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