Shell Spills Bodo Community, Nigeria

Description
Bodo community is located in Gokana Local Government Area of Ogoniland, Rivers State. The community hosts Shells TransNiger pipelines.
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Basic Data
NameShell Spills Bodo Community, Nigeria
CountryNigeria
ProvinceRivers state
SiteBodo Community, Gokana LGA, Ogoniland.
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Pollution related to transport (spills, dust, emissions)
Oil and gas exploration and extraction
Specific CommoditiesCrude oil
Project Details and Actors
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Potential Affected Population70,000 to 150,000
Start Date08/2008
Company Names or State EnterprisesShell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) from Nigeria
Royal Dutch Shell from Netherlands
Relevant government actorsNigeria National Petroleum Corporation
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersEnvironmental Rights Action/Friends of the Earth Nigeria., Amnesty International, Ogoni Solidarity Forum, Social Action, and other social movements.
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups MobilizingReligious groups
International ejos
Landless peasants
Social movements
Fishermen
Local scientists/professionals
Informal workers
Local ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Farmers
Women
Trade unions
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Forms of MobilizationMedia based activism/alternative media
Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Public campaigns
Development of a network/collective action
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Blockades
Official complaint letters and petitions
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Street protest/marches
Development of alternative proposals
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Land occupation
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Fires, Food insecurity (crop damage), Genetic contamination, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Oil spills, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Potential: Air pollution, Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Global warming, Soil erosion, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Health ImpactsVisible: Infectious diseases, Other environmental related diseases
Potential: Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Deaths
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Militarization and increased police presence
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCourt decision (undecided)
Bodo community has taken Shell to Court to demand for Justice. The case is pending.
Development of Alternatives1. Shell should carry out a comprehensive clean up of oil pollution and environmental damage in Bodo, in consultation with the community.

2. Ensure that people affected by the oil spills are provided with remedy. This should include rehabilitation, satisfaction and guarantee of non repetition, as well as adequate compensation that takes into account long term impacts, health issues and all other reasonable damages.

3. Government Should ensure that oil pollution in Bodo is cleaned up as a matter of urgency and subject to independent verification.The clean up should be in line with international good practices.

4.Immediate provision of relief and assistance to those affected by the spill.

5.Shell should make a clear and public commitment to contribute 1 billion USD as an initial payment to an independent clean up fund for pollution in Ogoniland.

6.Alternative sources of livelihood should be provided for displaced community people

7. The government should ensure the implementation of the UNEP report on the assessment of Ogoniland.

8. The Federal Government of Nigeria should leave the oil in the soil and diversify the economy.

Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.For four years, the Bodo community has asked Shell to clean up the oil spill. One fisherman expressed the view of many when he said; the greatest priority is the clean up of the oil, so i can continue to fish again, But the pollution remains.

This clearly contradicts Nigerias existing regulations, which requires oil companies to act promptly to clean up oil spills, regardless of what caused them. Shell has also refused to pay compensation to the affected people.

Sources and Materials
Legislations

Nigeria Federal Government agencies, such as NESREA and NOSDRA. NESREA (National Environmental Standards and Regulation Agency) has responsibility for the protection and development of the environment, biodiversity conservation and sustainable development of Nigerias natural resources in general and environmental technology including coordination, and liaison with, relevant stakeholders within and outsider Nigeria on maters of enforcement of environmental standards, regulations, rules,laws policies and guidelines.

References

The True Tragedy; Delay and Failures in Tracking oil spills in the Niger Delta: Amnesty International (2011), Peter Beneson House, UK.

Knee Deep in Crude.Vol.1 and 2;A publication of Environmental Rights Action. Nigeria.

UNEP Report (2011); Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland.

Shells Big Dirty Secret: extractive industries: Blessings or Curse: Shell Guilty Campaign,2009.

Annual Statistical Bulletin: A publication of Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation, 2010.

NESREA ACT, Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette. No.92, Vol 94. Lagos ,31st July, 2007

Links

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Media Links

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Other CommentsThe Bodo disaster is symptomatic of the wider situation surrounding the Niger Delta oil industries. For decades, the area and its people have been affected by thousands of oil spills.
Meta Information
ContributorGodwin Uyi Ojo
Last update08/04/2014
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