Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), Turkey

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">Planned for hydroelectric power generation purposes in the 1970s, the Southeastern Anatolia Project (in short GAP Project) has evolved into a multi-purpose one with socio-economic/rural development dimensions after the 1980s. Besides the construction of the dam and relared hydroelectric power plants, the Southeastern Anatolia Project Regional Development Administration was established providing funding in the fields of rural development, cultural asssets preservation, supporting entrepreneurship and womens issues thus creating sub-entities and offices. The project forsees the construction of 22 dams and in those already completed, there have been some conflicts regarding displacement and resettlement issues. Moreover, regarding cultural assets, urgent excavations took place in areas that would submerge under dam lake waters. Furthermore, during the construction of some of the dams, certains settlements claimed the depletion of their groundwater (for example Suruc). The most important and ongoing conflict is the construction of Ilisu Dam that is both an important part of the GAP project and which will flood Hasankeyf settlement. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), Turkey</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/turkey">Turkey</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Southeast Anatolia Region</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Adiyaman, Batman, Diyarbakir, Gaziantep, Kilis, Mardin, Siirt, Sanliurfa, Sirnak </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>LOW country/state level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Water Management</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Interbasin water transfers/transboundary water conflicts<br /> Desalination<br /> Dams and water distribution conflicts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/electricity'>Electricity</a><br /><a href='/commodity/water'>Water</a><br /><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">With the completion of 22 dams and 19 hydroelectric power plants, around 28% of Turkeys waters will be affected. The dams will be situated on Euphrates and Tigris Rivers and their tributaries. A total of 1,7 billion ha land is targeted to be irrigated and 1700 MW electric energy generated. </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>7,500,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>32 billion USD</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Semi-urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>6000000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>GAP Administration, State Hydraulic Works</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">International and Financial Institutions</td><td><a href='/institution/world-bank'>The World Bank <small>(WB)</small></a><br /><a href='/institution/akbank'>Akbank</a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/turkey'><small>Turkey</small></a><br /><a href='/institution/garantibank'>GarantiBank</a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/turkey'><small>Turkey</small></a><br /><a href='/institution/european-union'>European Union <small>(EU)</small></a><br /><a href='/institution/united-nations-development-programme'>United Nations Development Programme <small>(UNDP)</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Hasankeyf Volunteers, the Turkish Nature Association (Doga Dernegi), Friends of the Earth, Berne Declaration, the platform of chambers and NGOs under the Chamber of Construction Engineers, Initiative for Sustaining Hasankeyf, Association for Sustaining Hasankeyf ve Tigris Valley, Ecologistas en Accion, ECA-Watch, Bank Track, CounterCurrent, Kurdish Human Rights Project, International Rivers, Ilisu Dam Campaign.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>International ejos<br /> Local ejos<br /> Social movements<br /> Local scientists/professionals<br /> Villagers</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Development of alternative proposals<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Objections to the EIA<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Shareholder/financial activism.<br /> Street protest/marches</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Desertification/Drought, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Other environmental related diseases</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>loss of income, difficulties in access to water, loss of cultural heritage/ loss of or damage on historical artifact</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Criminalization of activists<br /> Migration/displacement</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Not Sure</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>Being a project sprawling to a very wide area, the GAP project consists of various conflicts against the construction of dams and irrigation infrastructure. In time some of these have been successsful (for example the dissolution of the consortium in charge of Ilisu Dams construction in early 2000s) while others did not lead to any results.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.gap.gov.tr/gap-bki/gap-bki-mevzuati/anayasa" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.gap.gov.tr/gap-bki/gap-bki-mevzuati/yonetmelik" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.gap.gov.tr/gap-bki/gap-bki-mevzuati/gap-bki-baskanligi-kanun-hukmunde-kararname" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.gap.gov.tr/gap-bki/gap-bki-mevzuati/kanun" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Bosshard, P. 1999 A Case Study of the Ilisu Hydropower Project (Turkey). Berne: Erklaerung von Bern.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.evb.ch/p25014450.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Tuna, N., J. Ozturk and J. Velibeyoglu (eds.) 2001<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-52195" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Salvage Project of the Archaeological Heritage<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> of the Ilsu and Carchemish Dam Reservoirs: Activities in 1999. Ankara: METU Historic Environment Research Center.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Tuna, N., J. Ozturk and J. Velibeyoglu (eds.) 2002 Salvage Project of the Archaeological Heritage of the Ilsu and Carchemish Dam Reservoirs: Activities in 2000. Ankara: METU Historic Environment Research Center.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Morvaridi, B. 1990. 'Agrarian Reform and Land Use Policy in Turkey: Implications for the Southeast Anatolia Project.' Land Use Policy 7 (4):303-13.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> GAP. 1989. GAP Master Plan Calismasi. Final Master Plan Raporu (Final Master Plan Report of the GAP Project). Ankara: GAP.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Carkoglu, A., and M. Eder. 2005. 'Developmentalism alla Turca: The Southeastern Anatolia Development Project (GAP).' In Environmentalism in Turkey: Between Democracy and Development?, ed. F. Adaman and M. Arsel. Aldershot: Ashgate.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> (see attached file)<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Hildyard, N., A. Tricarico, S. Eberhardt, H. Drillisch, and D. Norlen 2000 'The Ilisu Dam, the World Commission on Dams and export credit reform: the final report of a fact-finding mission to the lisu Dam region', 9-16 October 2000. London: Ilisu<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Kibaroglu, A. 2002. 'Design and Management of Irrigation Systems: The Southeastern Anatolia Development Project.' In Modern and Traditional Irrigation Technologies in the Eastern Mediterranean, ed. M. Ozay and H. A. Bicak. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Zeynep Kadirbeyoglu</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/09/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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