Tamanthi dam on Chindwin River, Sagaing Division, Myanmar

The Tamanthi dam, proposed by India’s and Burma’s government, would have threatened ethnic minorities and a unique river ecosystem sustaining local cultures and livelihoods. Civil society groups welcomed the cancellation of the project in 2013.


Description

Myanmar’s Chindwin river is the largest tributary to the Irrawaddy. It originates in the Hugawng Valley of Kachin State and flows through mountain ranges and forests, passing through Sagaing Division, until it reaches the large Irrawaddy. Hundreds of thousands of people from different ethnic groups (Kuki, Kachin, Shan, Naga and Chin and Burmese) depend for their livelihoods and culture on the unique and biodiverse river ecosystem. The Tamanthi dam (Sagaing Division), proposed by India’s and Myanmar’s governments in 2004, would have changed the Chindwin River irreversibly. The dam projected provoked strong civil society opposition over the large social and environmental impacts and human rights abuses documented during the early stages of development. The dam was eventually cancelled in 2013 [1,2,3]. 

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Basic Data
NameTamanthi dam on Chindwin River, Sagaing Division, Myanmar
CountryMyanmar
ProvinceSagaing Divison
SiteLeivomjang and Tazong villages, Tamanthi town, Khamti town
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Water Management
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Deforestation
Dams and water distribution conflicts
Land acquisition conflicts
Logging and non timber extraction
Specific CommoditiesElectricity
Land
Timber
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe proposed site of the dam is located near to Tamanthi.

According to Burma Rivers Network (2008), the dam had a planned height of 80 meters, an installed capacity of 1,200 MW. Annual production was expected to amount to 6,685 GWh [2].

According to a report by HART (2015), the dam was planned to cover 139,600 ha of land [3]. According to Burma Rivers Network (2008), approximately 17,000 acres (6,880 ha) of fertile agricultural land would have to be flooded [2]. (see also 4)

Companies that were involved in the project: Indian National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC), and Swiss Colenco Power Engineering, Ltd, which prepared a project feasibility assessment. [1,2].

Costs of the Tamanthi dam were estimated at 3 billion USD [2].

According to KWHRO, the forests around the dam site were cleared by Tin Win Tun logging company. Those at the relocation site were cleared by Jewelry Luck Company [1].
Project Area (in hectares)139,600
Level of Investment (in USD)3,000,000,000
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population45,000
Start Date2004
End Date06/2013
Company Names or State EnterprisesColenco from Switzerland
National Hydroelectric Power Corporation of India (NHPC) from India
Tin Win Tun logging company from Myanmar - logging of reservoir site
Jewelry Luck Company from Myanmar - logging of relocation site
Relevant government actorsIndian government

India’s Department of Hydropower Implementation (DHPI)

Burma’s past military regime

Ministry of Electric Power

Central Electricity Authority (CEA)

Department of Hydropower Implementation

and others
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersKuki Women’s Human Rights Organization (KWHRO), http://kwhro.blogspot.com/

Kuki Students' Democratic Front

Burma Rivers Network, http://burmariversnetwork.org

and others
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Women
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Religious groups
Kuki ethnic groups
Fisher people
Forms of MobilizationBoycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
religious prayer ceremonies
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity)
Potential: Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Other Environmental impacts
OtherEarthquake risks
Health ImpactsVisible: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..)
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Specific impacts on women
Outcome
Project StatusStopped
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Migration/displacement
Repression
Violent targeting of activists
Project cancelled
Compensations was minimal (5 USD)
Do you consider this as a success?Yes
Why? Explain briefly.The project has been cancelled. However, the vast damages caused for the forcefully relocated people have not been repaired adequately.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

2012 Foreign Investment Law
[click to view]

2012 Environmental Conservation Law
[click to view]

2012 Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands Management Law
[click to view]

2008 Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar
[click to view]

References

[1] Kuki Women’s Human Rights Organization (KWHRO) 2011 "Stop damming the Chindwin". Published in December 2011. (accessed online, 15.06.2018).
[click to view]

Links

[7] The Irrawaddy, 7 December 2016, "Burma Rivers Network Calls for a Halt to Dam Projects in Conflict Areas" (accessed online, 15.06.2018).
[click to view]

[2] Burma Rivers Network on the Tamanthi Dam. (accessed online, 15.06.2018).
[click to view]

[4] Aljazeera online article, 31 March 2013. "Thousands displaced by Myanmar dam". (accessed online, 15.06.2018).
[click to view]

[5] Statement by the Burma Rivers Network, 05 September, 2013 "Burma Rivers Network welcomes India’s cancellation of Tamanthi Dam, urges China and Thailand to take similar environmental responsibility." (accessed online, 15.06.2018).
[click to view]

[6] Livemint.com, 06 Jun, 2013. "Myanmar scraps two hydroelectric projects planned with India" (accessed online, 15.06.2018).
[click to view]

[3] Humanitarian Aid Relief Trust (HART) 2015 "Large-Scale Developments in Burma: Uncovering Trends in Human Rights Abuse". (accessed online, 15.06.2018).
[click to view]

Other Documents

Cover of the report launched by Kuki Women's Human Rights Organization (KWHRO) Source: [1] - http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Stop_Damming_the%20_Chindwin-red.pdf
[click to view]

Map of flooded zone Source: [1] - http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Stop_Damming_the%20_Chindwin-red.pdf
[click to view]

Backcover of the report launched by Kuki Women's Human Rights Organization (KWHRO) Source: [1] - http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Stop_Damming_the%20_Chindwin-red.pdf
[click to view]

Chindwin River close to Monywa (2008) Source: Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chindwin_River#/media/File:R_Chindwin.JPG
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorEJatlas Southeast Asia Team (ejatlas.asia"at"gmail.com)
Last update18/06/2018
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