Tarda agricultural farming in Tana River Delta

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">Tana and Athi Rivers Development Authority (TARDA) together with Mumias Sugar Company Ltd (MSCL) came into an agreement to undertake sugarcane growing and ethanol production in the Tana Delta on 20,000 ha of the 40,000 ha land owned by TARDA. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> An EIA study was done for the project but it received major opposition from environmentalists. Nevertheless an EIA license was given in June 2008. A court case put an injunction on this project, but the case was thrown out on a technicality in June 2009. <br/><br/> While the court injunction was still in force, in April 2009, TARDA were given a title for 40,000 ha of land in Tana Delta, on which the authority decided to grow maize and rice because Kenya was facing a food emergency as a result of the drought. Local communities including farmers and pastoralists were evicted from the area to give way for the agricultural developments. <br/><br/> In August 2010, a new court case was filed by representatives of Tana Delta local communities in the Kenyan High Court. A first hearing was held though no injunction was granted due to the need for amendment and wide advertisement before the consideration of the request for such an order. The court case was widely covered in the Kenyan media and a court hearing to consider the injunction was scheduled for December 2010. The case has been postponed severally since then and is scheduled for hearing in mid September 2012. Plans are still under way to implement the sugar project by TARDA and MSCL. <br/><br/> The Tana River Delta is one of the most important wetlands in Africa. It supports over 350 species of birds, the core Delta area covers 130,000ha and is a rich mix of habitats supporting thousands of wetland birds as well as hippos, lions, elephants, buffaloes and numerous breeding fish and amphibians. Such agricultural developments would lead to loss of habitat for these species as well as loss of livelihoods for the local communities who depend on it for farming and pastoralism. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Tarda agricultural farming in Tana River Delta </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/kenya">Kenya</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Coast Province</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Tana River District</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>LOW country/state level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Biodiversity conservation conflicts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Wetlands and coastal zone management<br /> Land acquisition conflicts<br /> Intensive food production (monoculture and livestock)<br /> Other<br /> Agro-fuels and biomass energy plants</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br /><a href='/commodity/sugar'>Sugar</a><br /><a href='/commodity/ethanol'>Ethanol</a><br /><a href='/commodity/rice'>Rice</a><br /><a href='/commodity/corn-maize'>Corn/Maize</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">TARDA and MSCL intend to undertake sugarcane farming in the Tana Delta on 40,000 ha of land. TARDA had earlier initiated rice and maize farming on the land as a response to Kenyas drought and food shortage, which failed. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> The projects aims at creating 25,000 jobs, saving the countrys foreign exchange through direct import substitution on industrial sugar and earning foreign exchange through involvement of small holders. <br/><br/> The projects ultimate goal is to help MSCL reduce its dependence on a single region, Western Kenya for its sugar by exploring a more productive region; and thus helping bridge the national sugar production deficit, which currently stands at 200,000 tonnes annually. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>20,000 </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>12/2007</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/mumias-sugar-company-ltd'>Mumias Sugar Company Ltd</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/kenya'><small>Kenya</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Tana and Athi Rivers Development Authority (TARDA); -The Ministry of Water and Irrigation;, Water Resources Management Authority;, National Environment Management Authority;, Ministry of Agriculture;, Kenya Forest Service;, Kenya Wildlife Service.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>East African Wild Life Society;, Nature Kenya;, Kenya Wetlands Forum;, Kenya Forests Working Group;, Tana Delta Conservation Organization;, Wema-Ngatana Farmers Cooperative Society;, Lower Tana Delta Conservation Trust;, Tana Delta Pastoralists Initiative;, ARocha Kenya;, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds;, BirdLife international, Action Aid;, DFID UKAid.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Fishermen<br /> International ejos<br /> Local ejos<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Pastoralists<br /> Local scientists/professionals</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Objections to the EIA<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Malnutrition</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Displacement, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Violations of human rights</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Migration/displacement<br /> Repression<br /> Under negotiation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>Though 32 villages are still settled in the land, the project is still in operation.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Constitution of the Republic of Kenya, 2010;<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Forests Act, 2005; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Forest Policy; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Wildlife (Conservation and Management) Act of 1976 ; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act (EMCA) of 1999; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Environmental Policy;Water Act, 2002; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Water Policy (National Policy on Water Resources Management); <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Agriculture Act, Cap 318; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Local Government Act, Cap 265; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Fisheries Act, Cap 378<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Ramsar Convention 1971<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> COAST PROVINCE, KENYA (Land Allocation Reference No. 106796 of 17.1.1995)'<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.tanariverdelta.org/tana/967-DSY/version/default/part/AttachmentData/data/MUMIAS_Tana_EIA_part1.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> EIA part 2<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.tanariverdelta.org/tana/969-DSY/version/default/part/AttachmentData/data/MUMIAS_Tana_EIA_part2.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Mumia Sugar Company report 'ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) STUDY REPORT FOR THE PROPOSED TANA INTEGRATED SUGAR PROJECT IN TANA RIVER AND LAMU DISTRICTS, <br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> ; 'No end in sight for TARDA project'<br/><a class="refanch small" href="Tanariverdelta.org" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="www.tanariverdelta.org/tana/press/4267-DSY" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Royal Society Protection of Birds:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.rspb.org.uk/ourwork/casework/details.aspx?id=tcm:9-228564" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Arocha Kenya:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="arochakenya.wildlifedirect.org/category/tana-river-delta" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Birdlife:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.birdlife.org/community/2011/10/planning-process-for-tana-river-delta-under-way/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Business Daily Africa, 'MP backs Mumias on Tana River cane plan'<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.businessdailyafrica.com/MP-backs-Mumias-on-Tana-River-cane-plan-/-/539546/1460776/-/2qbw1n/-/index.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> World Rainforest Movement<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.wrm.org.uy/bulletin/145/Kenya.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Serah Munguti</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>