Thermal Power Plant Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Thermal Power Plant Tuzla represents a serious threat to lives of the local people of Tuzla canton because it is unwilling to implement environmental measures but it has been expanding its capacities.


Description

Thermal Power Plant (TPP) Tuzla was constructed in several stages in the period between 1959 and 1978. The coal (lignite and brown) is supplied to the TPP from the nearby Kreka-Banovic coal basin. Besides the generation of electricity, the plant produces thermal energy for district heating of the towns Tuzla and Lukovac, and according to the plant website it also provides industrial water and steam for industry.

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Basic Data
Name Thermal Power Plant Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
CountryBosnia and Herzegovina
ProvinceThe Tuzla Canton
SiteTuzla
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Coal extraction and processing
Thermal power plants
Specific CommoditiesElectricity
Coal
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsInstalled capacity of active blocks = 715 MW

Installed capacity of Block 6 = 215 MW

Planned installed capacity of Block 7 = 450 MW

Average annual generation of electricity = around 3,100 GWh

Annual coal consumption = about 4 million tonnes of coal resulting in 53,000 tonnes of toxic hydrogen sulfide.

TPP Tuzla employs 400 people, while 4,500 work in the mines in the Tuzla area.
Level of Investment (in USD)808,000,000
Type of PopulationUrban
Potential Affected Population100,000
Start Date2013
Company Names or State EnterprisesElektroprivreda BiH d.d. Sarajevo - TPP Tuzla owner
RAFAKO S.A. from Poland - Polish company, responsible for replacement of filters on TPP Tuzla Block unit 6
DELING Tuzla from Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bosnian company from Tuzla, responsible for replacement of filters on TPP Tuzla Block unit 6
Energoinvest d.d Sarajevo from Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bosnian company, responsible for upgrading of the ash transport systems on Block unit 6 of TTP Tuzla
China Gezhouba Group Co. LTD (CGGC) from China - Contracted as constructor of TPP Tuzla Blok 7
Guangdong Electric Power Design Institute (GEDI) from China - Contracted as constructor of TPP Tuzla Blok 7
Relevant government actorsMunicipality of Zenica, Three authorities of Tuzla District: Šićki Brod, Bukinja, Husina; the Federal Ministry of Environment and Tourism of B&H; the Federal Ministry of Special Planning of B&H.
International and Financial InstitutionsThe Export-Import Bank of China (China Exim Bank) from China - Investor (85% of investment provided through loan)
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersCS Front https://www.facebook.com/nvofront; CS Centar za ekologiju i energiju Tuzle http://www.ekologija.ba/index.php; Group of representatives of formal and informal citizens’ groups and experts “Grupu za čist zrak” (Group for clean air); Health and Environment Alliance (HEAL); Czech NGO "Arnika"; Association for the Protection of Nature "Ekotim" http://ekotim.net/bs/
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Industrial workers
Informal workers
International ejos
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Women
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationCommunity-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Street protest/marches
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Soil contamination, Air pollution, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity)
OtherLethal concentrations of arsenic, mercury and cadmium. High emissions of NOx, SO2 and PM2.5.
Health ImpactsVisible: Other environmental related diseases, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Deaths
OtherRespiratory diseases, cancers and cardiovascular diseases. An estimated loss of life expectancy per person of 3.2 years. The existing power plant in Tuzla is linked with to 4,918 ‘years of life lost’ across Europe each year. In the future new and improved blocks of TTP are estimated to be associated with 310 years of life lost annually.
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Loss of landscape/sense of place, Displacement, Land dispossession, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment
Potential: Loss of livelihood, Specific impacts on women, Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors
OtherLocal agricultural land was declared by the government to be used for disposal slag from the TPP.
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
New legislation
Technical solutions to improve resource supply/quality/distribution
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Withdrawal of company/investment
Development of AlternativesThe citizens of Tuzla demanded financial compensation for contamination, as well as more employments in TPP so they could have some economic benefits. Furthermore, the citizens demanded spending compensation money on improving the living conditions in Tuzla Municipality by investing in recreational and cultural facilities, expansion of the district heating supply system, and general improvement on city infrastructure. The plans for building TPP Block 7 are contrary to the citizens and NGO demands to switch to renewable sources in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The experts found that related health costs make energy production from coal economically not viable and more expensive than investments in alternative energy sources. The Tuzla Municipality authorities demanded installation of desulphurization system on the existing TPP blocks.
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.As a result of legal action, the municipality of Tuzla received financial compensation for contamination from the Elektroprivreda BiH d.d. Sarajevo in 2013 and in 2014. Elektroprivreda BiH claims to have completed five out of seven projects planned by the contract of friendly environment signed with Tuzla Municipality, mainly including expansion of the district heating supply system and sewage network. Once built environmentally more advanced Block 7 will have lifespan of 40 years. In the meantime active blocks of TPP Tuzla will continue polluting at the same extent until 2027 given that no environmental measures have been implemented.
Sources and Materials
References

HEALTH IMPACTS OF COAL FIRED POWER GENERATION IN TUZLA
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Persistent Organic Pollutants in Free Range Chicken Eggs from Western Balkan countries
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Pristustvo teskih metala u zemljistu i lokalno proizvedenoj hrani
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ULAGANJE U PROSLOST ILI KAKO NAM UGALJ SAGOREVA IMOVINU I ZDRAVLJE
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Tehnički izveštaj Uticaji termoelektrana na ugalj na zdravlje na Zapadnom Balkanu
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Links

TPP Tuzla
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Građani pripremaju kolektivnu tužbu protiv Elektroprivrede BiH
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Ekološka revolucija ispred Termoelektrane- Građani protestvovali zbog zagađenja
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Protest u Tuzli protiv zagađenosti vazduha
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Successful completion of the project “Thermal power plant Tuzla”
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Projekti Elektroprivrede BiH: Ponude za Blok 7 TE Tuzla u aprilu
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Blok 7 TE „Tuzla“
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Izgradnja Bloka 7 TE Tuzla: Nije zagađenje, već veliki benefit
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Bosnia: Pollution or big benefit, construction of the 7th unit of TPP “Tuzla” caused negative reactions from local communities and NGOs
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Protest u Tuzli protiv zagađenosti vazduha
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Gradsko vijeće Tuzla: Glavni krivac za zagađenje vazduha termoelektrana
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Saznajemo: Kinezi grade blok 7 u Tuzli
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Nepodnošljiva zagađenost vazduha u Tuzli
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REPORTERI MAGAZINA U NAJZAGAĐENIJEM GRADU U EUROPI Svi pričaju samo o Pekingu, a Tuzla je tri puta zagađenija
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Termoelektrana i prljava energija
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Učestovali smo na ETNAR seminaru u Tuzli
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GRUPA ZA ČIST ZRAK: U RJEŠAVANJE PROBLEMA ZAGAĐENJA UKLJUČITI SVE NIVOE VLASTI!
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Istraživanje: Zdravstveni troškovi od zagađenja iz termoelektrana na ugalj u BiH drugi u regiji
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Kokošja jaja iz Zenice i Tuzle opasna za zdravlje
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Zdravstveni troškovi kao posljedica zagađenja iz termoelektrana na ugalj u BiH se procjenjuju na 3,1 milijardu eura
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Građani protiv deponije šljake iz TE Tuzla 7
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Kinezi ulažu 722 miliona evra u TE Tuzla
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Izgradnja pogona ili uvoz struje: Da li će BiH ostati bez svoje električne energije?
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Potpisan aneks ugovor o finansiranju izgradnje Bloka 7 TE Tuzla
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Tuzla 7 lignite power plant, Bosnia and Herzegovina
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Japanci odustali od ulaganja u TE Tuzla
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Media Links

Inicijativa za kolektivnu tužbu protiv EP BiH
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Ekoloska revolucija: Protest građana Sickog Broda, Husina i Bukinja
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Proizvod smrti TE Tuzla
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Tuzla: Senail Ajsic protest ispred Termoelektrane Tuzla
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Žitelji tuzlanskih naselja: Termoelektrana uzrok karcinoma
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Teškim metalima zagađeno poljoprivredno zemljište u Tuzli
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Termoelektrana Tuzla: Neraskidiva veza tuzlanskog industrijskog bazena - Reportaža - 25.02.2016.
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Other Documents

TE Tuzla protest Citizens of Tuzla protesting against TPP, they say "We are dying and you do not care" and "Stop polluting us"
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Other CommentsThe Chinese company Gezhouba and The Export-Import Bank have been included in construction of other two TPP in B&H, the one near Doboj is finished, while there is agreement on the construction of another one in Banovici.
Meta Information
ContributorJovanka Spiric, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, vankajo(at)gmail.com
Last update24/05/2016
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