Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, United States

On March 28, 1979, Three Mile Island's nuclear power plant unit 2 (almost 1000 MW) suffered the US worst commercial nuclear accident. Radiation was released. Many people were evacuated. The effects were felt in the country and abroad.


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">The Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor, near Middletown, Pa., on the Susquehanna River,  partially melted down on March 28, 1979. The accident showed that there were enormous risks from  nuclear power plants. It enhanced safety concerns among activists and the general public, resulted in new regulations for the nuclear industry, and contributed to the decline of reactor construction programs in the US and in some other countries. It gave a great impulse to the anti-nuclear movement, and discredited previous risk assessments such as the notorious 1975 Rasmussen Report sponsored by the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission statistically estimating extremely low risks from potential accidents in commercial nuclear power plants. It was carried out under the direction of Norman C. Rasmussen of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The risks had to be estimated, rather than measured, because although there were about 50 such plants operating, there had not been grave nuclear accidents in commercial reactors in the U.S. before the Three Mile Island meltdown. On March 30, 1979, Gov. Richard Thornburgh recommended an evacuation for preschool children and pregnant women living within five miles of Three Mile Island. According to some research, data collected since the meltdown  demonstrate a significant nexus between radiation exposure and adverse health impacts to women and children.  The US – until the accident - was expecting to derive about 14 percent of its generating capacity from nuclear power stations. The US industry had begun confidently taking new orders totaling 8,000 MW that year – more than any year since 1974. Instead, after Three Mile Island,  president Carter ordered an inquiry into the accident and said he would expedite efforts to expand the number of nuclear inspectors. But mid-April he added that “there is no way for us to abandon nuclear power in the foreseeable future,” reiterating his administration’s intention to introduce fresh legislation to accelerate the licensing of new nuclear plants. Intentions that were embedded in forecasts to build between 200 and 500 more nuclear power stations by the year 2000. The only thing on which Carter had been sure was to quit the fast breeder project,  at Clinch River in Tennessee. Instead of investing public resources in the breeder demonstration project, he urged attention to improving the safety of existing nuclear technology. Despite the rhetoric, and despite the fact that at the time of the TMI-accident, 17 utilities had applied to build 30 new nuclear plants in the United States, no nuclear power plant started construction in the US in the 30 years after the accident at Three Mile Island. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, United States</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/united-states-of-america">United States of America </a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Pennsylvania</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Middletown</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Nuclear</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Nuclear power plants</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/uranium'>Uranium</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">Estimated costs. Three Mile Island-1 (TMI-1) came on line in September 1974 at a cost of $400 million. Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) came on line in December 1978, its costs went over budget.. The plant had been online for just 90 days before the March 1979, accident. Then, at least one billion dollars has been spent to defuel the facility. TMI-2 cost is then close to $2 billion dollars in construction and cleanup bills. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">A federal appeals court in December 2003 dismissed the consolidated cases of 2,000 plaintiffs seeking damages against the plant’s former owners. The court said the plaintiffs failed to present evidence they had received a radiation dose large enough to possibly cause health effects.<br/><br/>At the time of the accident in March 1979, Three Mile Island units 1 and 2 were owned by three utilities operating in two states, i.e., Metropolitan Edison (50 percent), Jersey Central Power & Light (25 percent) and Pennsylvania Electric (25 percent). The companies were organized under the General Public Utilities holding company umbrella. <br/><br/>A federal appeals court in December 2003 dismissed the consolidated cases of 2,000 plaintiffs seeking damages against the plant’s former owners. The court said the plaintiffs failed to present evidence they had received a radiation dose large enough to possibly cause health effects.<br/><br/>100,000 people are said to have fled to Harrisburg and nearby on the days of the accident. (https://www.democracynow.org/2009/3/27/three_mile_island_30th_anniversary_of). <br/><br/>Unit 2 was operating at its full capacity of 959 megawatts. Unit 2 of TMI was permanently closed after the accident, Unit 1 was started again only after some time, adding to the costs. <br/><br/>There is a continuing debate on the health consequences of the accident on the surrounding populations. The accident implied a decisive impulse to the anti-nuclear movement in the US and other countries. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>2,000,000,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Semi-urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>100,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>28/03/1979</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/metropolitan-edison-the-owners-of-three-mile-island-everything-is-under-control-there-is-and-was-no-danger-to-public-health-and-safety'>Metropolitan Edison</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-states-of-america'><small>United States of America </small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>President Jimmy Carter of the USA (visited the site two days afterwards)<br/><br/>Governor of Pennslvania, W. Scranton</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>TMI Alert http://www.tmia.com/tmi<br/><br/>Wise International</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>Mobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>International ejos<br /> Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Local scientists/professionals</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)<br /> Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>Radiation, nuclear accident (meltdown)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Occupational disease and accidents, Other Health impacts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Displacement, Specific impacts on women<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Violations of human rights, Other socio-economic impacts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>Pregnant women in a 5 mile radius were evacuated</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Stopped</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Court decision (undecided)<br /> Withdrawal of company/investment</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The local people suffered a great risk of damage and perhaps actual damage, without enough recognition, in their own view. The accident was a strong deterrent to the building of nuclear power plants in the US and other countries.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> World Information Service on Energy, founded in 1978. Several reports on the case. A good source for nuclear energy for many years.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.wiseinternational.org/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Dickinson College website, information on the accident from a small college not far away<br/><a class="refanch small" href=" http://www.threemileisland.org/ " target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Interview with William Scranton III, at the time Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania, who visited the site<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/three/peopleevents/pandeAMEX96.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Wise International. The curse of Three Mile Island. Nuclear Monitor Issue: #685. <br />19/03/2009<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.wiseinternational.org/nuclear-monitor/685/curse-three-mile-island " target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> "Crisis at Three Mile Island". Very full contemporary account of the events and its aftermath, several episodes in The Washington Post.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/tmi/whathappened.htm" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The New York Times, the day after the accident<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0328.html#article" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> TV Interview with transcript, Amy Goodman and Harvey Wasserman, 30th anniversary of the accident<br/><a class="refanch small" href=" https://www.democracynow.org/2009/3/27/three_mile_island_30th_anniversary_of" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Bulletin with many news from the Three Mile Island Alert, directed by Eric Epstein<br/><a class="refanch small" href=" http://www.tmia.com/taxonomy/term/12" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Dickinson College, Three Mile Island emergency, description of the accident<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.threemileisland.org/science/what_went_wrong/ " target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Documentary, The Meltdown<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0J7kHfBBBmk" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Three_Mile_Island_accident_sign.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>JMA</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>23/11/2016</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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