Titanium Mining in Thuan Nam district, Ninh Thuan province, Vietnam

Titanium mining in Thuan Nam district has caused health and environmental damages, while consuming scarce groundwater, needed for daily living and agriculture. Villagers strongly oppose the mining activities.


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">In August 2012, the provincial People’s Committee of Ninh Thuan province approved a titanium mining permit for the Quang Thuan company, covering 83.7ha in Son Hai 1 and Son Hai 2 hamlets of Thuan Nam district. Since then, the mining activities have caused significant environmental pollution and have led to serious health problems, such as respiratory inflammations and eye diseases, provoked by dust and sand pollution. Further impacts include drastic reduction of groundwater sources and drying up of wells due to the company’s tapping of water sources for ore processing. The growing lack of water has negatively affected the daily life of villagers as well as agricultural production in the region [1].</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">In the context of these negative environmental and health impacts, the titanium mining operations have provoked large opposition and uprising of locals [1;2]. Following many complaints, and in response to the company’s lack of a license to use groundwater sources for ore processing, a temporary suspension was ordered in 2012. The provincial government demanded from the company a new Environmental Impact Assessment as well as the establishment of clean water facilities for the local populations. In early 2013, the company was allowed to continue mining activities on a small area of 19.32ha, given they would control environmental pollution [1]. <br/><br/>When the company was going to fully resume its activities on March 19, 2014, however, in absence of the required clean water facilities, it was reported that around 700 villagers gathered in front of the Phuoc Dinh commune’s governmental building to voice their concerns and opposition [3;4]. Some of the protester were alleged of mobilizing the gathered villagers to set fire to the company factory and equipment [1;4]. Following these events, the provincial government decided to suspend again the company’s activities, while investigating the circumstances of the factory burning. Consequently, six activists were arrested and charged [1;4]. According to online blogs, this provoked that during the following week, thousands of people marched in Thuan Nam district to protest, demanding the release of the 6 arrested people [2; see also 4]. The protesters clashed against the anti-riot police, producing violent fights and injuries on both sides [2].<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Titanium Mining in Thuan Nam district, Ninh Thuan province, Vietnam</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/vietnam">Vietnam</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Ninh Thuan province</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Thuan Nam district</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Mineral ore exploration<br /> Mineral processing<br /> Water access rights and entitlements</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/rare-metals'>Rare metals</a><br /><a href='/commodity/water'>Water</a><br />Titanium-Zircon Ore</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">Quang Thuan company was granted an 83.7ha mining permit to explore, mine and process titanium-zircon ore in the Thuan Nam district [1].</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">No information on banks involved could be found. No production data was found.<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>83.7</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>unknown</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Semi-urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>700 - 5000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>08/2012</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/quang-thuan-one-member-co-ltd'>Quang Thuan One-Member Co Ltd.</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/vietnam'><small>Vietnam</small></a> - <small>mining</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>People's Committee of Ninh Thuan Province; the Phuoc Dinh commune’s government</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Defend the Defenders; Former Vietnamese Prisoners of Conscience (FVPOC)</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Blockades<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Land occupation<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Street protest/marches<br /> Property damage/arson<br /> Threats to use arms<br /> Occupation of buildings/public spaces</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Air pollution, Soil contamination, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Food insecurity (crop damage)<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Noise pollution, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Mine tailing spills</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Other environmental related diseases, Other Health impacts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>respiratory inflammation, eye diseases due to pollution</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Criminalization of activists<br /> Repression<br /> New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study<br /> Project temporarily suspended</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Not Sure</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>There has been a temporary suspension</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Vietnam’s 2010 Mineral Law<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.camcf.org:11002/upload/EditorUploads/2010%20Mineral%20Law.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> LAW ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION No. 55/2014/QH13<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.itpc.gov.vn/investors/how_to_invest/law/Law_on_environmental_protection_2014_1/mldocument_view/?set_language=en" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> [1] tuoitrenews.vn online (04/01/2014): "Vietnam titanium miner suspended for causing pollution" (accessed 22/06/2015)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://tuoitrenews.vn/society/18727/vietnam-titanium-miner-suspended-for-pollution-problems" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [2] BLOG DanLamBao: "Protesters clash with police at massive protest in Ninh Thuan" (accessed 22/06/2015)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://danlambaovn.blogspot.fr/2014/03/protesters-clash-with-police-at-massive.html " target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [3] Defend the Defenders online (27/03/2014): "Former Vietnamese Prisoners of Conscience (FVPOC) condemns detention of two innocent residents in Thuan Nam district, Ninh Thuan province" (accessed 22/06/2015)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.vietnamhumanrightsdefenders.net/2014/03/27/former-vietnamese-prisoners-conscience-fvpoc-condemns-detention-two-innocent-residents-thuan-nam-district-ninh-thuan-province/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [4] Former Vietnamese Prisoners of Conscience 2014. "VIETNAM: MEMBER OF THE UN HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL & HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION 2014" (accessed 22/06/2015)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://fvpoc.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/HR-violation-ENG.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Protesters and anti-riot police<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lANOwgiW8U " target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>Protests, March 2014</strong> Source: http://danlambaovn.blogspot.fr/2014/03/protesters-clash-with-police-at-massive.html<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/a__bt1.png" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>Burned mining installations</strong> Source: http://tuoitrenews.vn/society/18727/vietnam-titanium-miner-suspended-for-pollution-problems<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/c__CDOoE6Iz.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>A. Scheidel (ICTA-UAB)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>24/06/2015</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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