Vidin air pollution, Bulgaria

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">Vidin town has been suffering heavy air pollution since the socialist period. Contaminants are due both to local polluters - chemical factory, pulp mill, and an incinerator for dead animals - and outside air pollution coming from a shoe factory in Romania. After the fall of socialism, these industries were shut down; however, the town is currently the second most air polluted in Bulgaria with dust particles over 10 ppm. This is mostly due to the use of coal as fuel for household heating due to the economic crisis. <br/><br/></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Vidin air pollution, Bulgaria</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/bulgaria">Bulgaria</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Vidin</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>LOW country/state level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Industrial and Utilities conflicts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp<br /> Incinerators<br /> Chemical industries</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/pine'>Pine</a><br /><a href='/commodity/cellulose'>Cellulose</a><br /><a href='/commodity/meat'>Meat</a><br /><a href='/commodity/manufactured-products'>Manufactured Products</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Urban</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>Mobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> International ejos<br /> Local ejos<br /> Social movements<br /> Women<br /> Students</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Blockades<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Air pollution, Global warming, Noise pollution<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Other environmental related diseases</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Stopped</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Criminalization of activists<br /> Deaths<br /> Migration/displacement<br /> Repression<br /> Violent targeting of activists</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Not Sure</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>After the socialist regime collapsed in the end of 80s demonstrations stopped the last major polluter - the chemical factory.<br/><br/>However, contaminants in the air persist until today.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Council Directive 96/62/EC <br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/legis.htm" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> In 2007, Bulgaria’s Council of Ministers adopted the National Programme for Restricting Overall Annual National Emissions of Sulphur Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, Volatile Organic Compounds and Ammonia, which advocates even lower levels for the emission of thes<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.eea.europa.eu/soer/countries/bg/air-pollution-national-responses-bulgaria" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Directive 2008/50/EC <br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vidin" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.vidin-online.com/eng/ecology/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Environmental News Network<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.enn.com/pollution/article/43569" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Todor Slavov</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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