Please zoom in or out and select the base layer according to your preference to make the map ready for printing, then press the Print button above.

Conflicts within the REDD+ Oddar Meanchey Community Forests, Cambodia


Description

The Oddar Meanchey Community Forest REDD+ (OM CF REDD+) project was initiated in 2008 and implemented through a partnership between the Cambodian Forestry Administration (FA), Pact, Terra Global Capital (TGC) and several local actors from the village, commune, district, provincial, and national levels. The establishment of the OM CF REDD- project has followed a ‘mosaic’ methodology, in which 13 different Community Forests (CF) were linked together, covering in total 64,318ha of land. Several conflicts with different actors have arisen, surrounding the Community Forests being part of the REDD+ site [1].

First, the granting of forest land to private companies, via the Economic Land Concession framework (ELC) has caused strong conflicts with local forest users. ELCs, mainly established to implement industrial agro-projects, were granted in Oddar Meanchey without proper consultation, producing few benefits for locals while contributing to deforestation to make space for agricultural land [1].

Second, growing military presence to increase security along the border to Thailand has also caused an increasing construction of roads within the forests; granting of forest land to soliders by the provincial authorities; as well as involved of soldiers in illegal activities such as illegal logging and hunting. This has produced violent clashes between the military and CF users, which are increasingly blocked to access the forest as well as to patrol and monitor the forest for the REDD+ project purposes [1].

Finally, conflicts have also been reported between the community institutions and local government, as cooperation between these institutions has been poor. Issues of benefit sharing might aggravate the conflicts further during the project implementation as community forestry leaders have different ideas about how REDD+ revenues should be invested in the community [1].

A series of measures have been proposed to mitigate these conflicts, including awareness raising, increased consultation of local stakeholders, and strengthening of local forest management structures, such as through strengthening the Community Forestry Network (CFN) [1].

Basic Data

NameConflicts within the REDD+ Oddar Meanchey Community Forests, Cambodia
CountryCambodia
ProvinceOddar Meanchey
SiteSeveral Community Forests across Oddar Meanchey (e.g. Samraong district)
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level

Source of Conflict

Type of Conflict (1st level)Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Deforestation
Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Specific CommoditiesCarbon offsets
Land
Timber

Project Details and Actors

Project DetailsAccording to agreements between the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) and Terra Global Capital, at least 50 percent of the net income from the carbon credit sales needs to be allocated to local communities for local development projects. This corresponds to around 10 million USD available over a period of 30 years [1].

Government Decision No. 699 illustrates that the FA retains ownership of forest carbon credits and plays the role of the carbon credit seller for the project. The Government Decision No. 699 states that revenues from carbon credit selling from the project will be used to (1) improve the forest quality, (2) provide maximum benefits to local communities who are participating in the project, and (3) study the new potential area for new REDD+ projects in Cambodia. The Technical Working Group on Forestry and Environment was nominated to channel payments during the first five years (Bradley, 2011).

The project encompasses 58 village communities in which 8,000 households live [2]
Project Area (in hectares)64,318
Level of Investment (in USD)10,000,000 USD
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population8,000 households
Start Date2008
Company Names or State EnterprisesPact from United States of America
Terra Global Capital (TGC) from United States of America
Relevant government actorsMinistry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (MAFF); Cambodian military; Technical Working Group on Forestry and Environment
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersCommunity Forestry Network (CFN); The Monks Community Forestry Association (MCF) has played a key role in mobilising support for community forestry and REDD+ in Oddar Meanchey. With the guidance of a charismatic leader, the Venerable Bun Saluth, the MCF has been influential in gaining the trust and support of villagers for forest protection.

Children’s Development Association (CDA) is a local NGO based in Oddar Meanchey province that has been implementing community forestry projects since 2002.

The Community Forestry Network (CFN) was informally established in 2008 to represent all the CFs in Oddar Meanchey province. A representative from each of the 13 CF groups partakes in the network. The CFN plays an important role in resolving the key problems affecting the CFs, particularly conflicts over forest land use and the internal management of the CF groups.

The Conflict and the Mobilization

Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LATENT (no visible organising at the moment)
When did the mobilization beginLATENT (no visible resistance)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Local scientists/professionals
Religious groups
Fisher people
Forms of MobilizationCreation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action

Impacts

Environmental ImpactsVisible: Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Noise pollution
Health ImpactsVisible: Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..)
Potential: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Land dispossession, Other socio-economic impacts, Militarization and increased police presence
Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Loss of landscape/sense of place
OtherSocial exclusion and breakdown of structure and solidary of the local groups

Outcome

Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseRepression
Strengthening of participation
Do you consider this as a success?Yes
Why? Explain briefly.Community action has made important contributions to addressing and resolving forestry conflicts in Oddar Meanchey. This community mobilization has generally been led by CF leaders and the CFN Chief, and has resulted in important outcomes for forest protection and conflict resolution. Pact has supported the CFN through the provision of resources and capacity building, to allow regular meetings to take place and enhance the strength of the network.

Sources and Materials

Legislations

Government Decision No. 699 illustrates that the FA retains ownership of for- est carbon credits and plays the role of the carbon credit seller for the project. The Government Decision No. 699 states that revenues from carbon credit selling from the project will be used to (1) improve the forest quality, (2) provide maximum ben- efits to local communities who are participating in the project, and (3) study the new potential area for new REDD+ projects in Cambodia. The FA agreed that at least 50 percent of the net income (after project expense) will flow to participating communi- ties in the project and the Technical Working Group on Forestry and Environment was nominated to channel payments during the first five years (Bradley, 2011).

References

Yeang, D. (2012). Community Tenure Rights and REDD+: A Review of the Oddar Meanchey Community For- estry REDD+ Project in Cambodia. ASEAS - Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 5(2), 263-274.
http://www.seas.at/aseas/5_2/ASEAS_5_2_A5.pdf

Bradley, A., 2011, Review of Cambodia’s REDD readiness: Progress and challenges. Kanagawa, Japan: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES).
http://redd-database.iges.or.jp/redd/download/link?id=4

Pasagaard, M. and Chea, L, 2013, Double inequity? The social dimensions of deforestation and forest protection in local communities in Northern Cambodia, Austrian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol 6(2), pp. 330-355

[1] Conflict resolution in REDD+: An assessment in the Oddar Meanchey Community Forestry REDD+ Site, Cambodia
http://www.pactcambodia.org/Programs/FPCC/Lessons%20Learned%20Report_Conflict%20resolution%20in%20OM.pdf

Links

Economic land concessions (ELCs) as source of conflict in Oddar Meanchey
www.drf.dfcentre.com/project/environmental-conflicts-and-poor-peoples%E2%80%99-livelihoods-case-study-redd-project-northwest-camb

[2] TERRA Global Capital on the Oddar Meanchey Community REDD Project, Cambodia
http://www.terraglobalcapital.com/oddar-meanchey-community-redd-project-cambodia

Other Documents

Roads in the Community Forest, constructed by the military Source: http://www.pactcambodia.org/Programs/FPCC/Lessons%20Learned%20Report_Conflict%20resolution%20in%20OM.pdf
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/military_roads.png

Forest clearance by the military Source: http://www.redd-monitor.org/2014/06/13/military-clearing-of-community-forests-in-oddar-meanchey-cambodia-photos/
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/od_P1020913.jpeg

Military bunker within the community forest Source: http://www.redd-monitor.org/2014/06/13/military-clearing-of-community-forests-in-oddar-meanchey-cambodia-photos/
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/od_P1020974.jpeg

Meta Information

ContributorHao Phan, School of International Development, University of East Anglia, [email protected]
Last update08/07/2015

Images

 

Roads in the Community Forest, constructed by the military

Source: http://www.pactcambodia.org/Programs/FPCC/Lessons%20Learned%20Report_Conflict%20resolution%20in%20OM.pdf

Forest clearance by the military

Source: http://www.redd-monitor.org/2014/06/13/military-clearing-of-community-forests-in-oddar-meanchey-cambodia-photos/

Military bunker within the community forest

Source: http://www.redd-monitor.org/2014/06/13/military-clearing-of-community-forests-in-oddar-meanchey-cambodia-photos/