In Ghana, students and trade unions have joined small-scale farmers’ organisations in mobilising against a Plant Breeders’ Rights (PVP) Bill. Currently under consideration in parliament, the Bill would establish a national seed law based on UPOV ’91. As has been the case in many countries around the world, the law is being used to introduce legal restrictions on farmers’ use of seeds that go above and beyond the already very restrictive provisions of UPOV ’91. For example, the draft Bill states that “even in absence of proof to the contrary” the breeders can be assumed to be the owners of a variety in question, facilitating both biopiracy and the confiscation of seeds. Moreover, according to the Bill, if farmers use a protected variety against the law—such as reproducing the seeds of a ‘protected’ variety and sharing it with their neighbours—the farmers may be subject to up to 2,000 penalty units and up to two years in prison.