São Tomé and Principe (Biosphere Reserve) are located in the west coast of Africa with unique flora and fauna. Of a total avifauna of 143 species, including 72 breeding residents, 28 species are endemic to São Tomé and Principe. Twelve of the endemics are species of global conservation concern . According to WRM report , the Oil palm grows naturally on the two main islands. Although the islands were not inhabited when the Portuguese arrived between 1469 and 1472, the subsequent introduction of sugar cane cultivation based on slave labour led to the forced arrival of Africans from Benin, Congo and Angola who brought with them the traditional uses of this oil palm (Elaeis guineesis). Their leaves, traditionally have been used in basket weaving, bags, brooms by local people. Moreover, this type of palm is used to produce wine across the entire country too .The product generates considerable income for wine extractors and vendors. This oil is extracted by the local suppliers for agricultural use, although it is also sold . After the Independence of the islands, the European Community financed the plantation of 650 hectares of oil palm in Ribeira Peixe, in the south of São Tomé island. The first palm oil mill (Empresa de Óleos Vegetais – EMOLVE) was established by a loan from the European Investment Bank. The mill was the capacity to meet the food oil needs of the entire population in the island. During the 1980s, EMOLVE continued expanding its palm plantations. By 1990, EMOLVE's industrial plant produced about 2,000 oil tonnes/year. In 1999, theoil production declined, falling to less than 100 tonnes/year, and finally coming to a halt in 2007. Several factors were behind this: for one, the oil palm groves grew old, and for another, the company’s equipment and infrastructure deteriorated. In 2008, the equipment was somewhat improved with a contribution from the government of Taiwan. but the problem was not fully resolved .