The Akosombo Dam, also known as the Akosombo Hydroelectric Project, is a hydroelectric dam on the Volta River in southeastern Ghana in the Akosombo gorge and part of the Volta River Authority. Originally designed in the 1920s to serve the British metropole, the Volta River Project was reshaped by the country’s founding leader Kwame Nkrumah in the 1950s. The revised project included a hydroelectric dam, an aluminum smelter to process Ghanaian mined bauxite, new cities, a deep sea harbor, and other infrastructural investments. The project became central to a modernization program that promised rapid industrialization and reducing the country’s dependence on cocoa exports. The development of the Volta River Basin was finally proposed in 1949; however, because there were insufficient funds, the American company Volta Aluminum Company (Valco) loaned money to Ghana so that the dam could be constructed. The primary purpose of the Akosombo Dam was in fact to provide electricity for the aluminium industry, which within Ghana was dependent upon the proposed hydroelectric power. The final proposal outlined the building of an aluminum smelter at Tema, a dam constructed at Akosombo to power the smelter, and a network of power lines installed through southern Ghana. The aluminum smelter was expected to eventually provide the revenue necessary for establishing local bauxite mining and refining, which would allow aluminum production without importing foreign alumina. The proposed project's aluminum smelter was overseen by the American company, Kaiser Aluminum, and is operated by Valco. The smelter received its financial investment from Valco shareholders, with the support of the Export-Import Bank of Washington, D.C. However, Valco did not invest without first requiring insurances from Ghana's government, such as company exemptions from taxes on trade and discounted purchases of electricity. According to Miescher, "The Volta scheme is an excellent prism to reconstruct how a large dam became not just the engine for the imagined transformation of Ghana during Africa’s era of decolonization but also a vehicle for multiple actors with competing agendas within the Cold War context.". In the postwar period, new players arrived on the scene of development. In addition to the imperial powers, the United States and the USSR, as well as Germany and the Scandinavian countries became sponsors of development. Others included international organizations, particularly the United Nations and the World Bank, and multinational corporations like the global aluminum industry. The dam was finally built between 1961 and 1965, after Nkrumah’s government came to power in 1951 and moved the Volta project to the center of its modernization agenda of his country. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the famed New Deal project launched by President Roosevelt in 1933, became a model of how the Volta scheme could transform the country.