In 1608, Captain John Smith sailed up the Anacostia River, and thus began the industrialization of the river and surrounding areas that have polluted it ever since. In the 18th century, a port was established on the river at its mouth at Bladensburg, Maryland, and the area only continued to be developed. The river was soon polluted by shipbuilding at the Washington Navy Yard and an upriver coal gasification plant . The Washington Navy Yard was classified by the EPA as a Superfund site in 1998 . By 2000, approximately 70% of the watershed had been developed . Since the beginning of the industrialization of the Anacostia, it has faced numerous issues, namely stormwater runoff and urban waste pollution. About 25% of the watershed is covered by impervious surfaces, causing storm water to flow into the river rather than sink into the ground . Runoff brings sediment, toxins, heavy metals, agricultural waste, trash, fecal bacteria, oil, antifreeze, and other pollutants into the river, while also accelerating currents, eroding the banks and increasing sedimentation . The National Resources Defense Council estimates that 75-90% of pollution in the Anacostia is caused by stormwater runoff . Another source of pollution is D.C.’s outdated sewage system, which allows about half a billion gallons of raw sewage to flow into the Anacostia each year. As a result, the river is laden with fecal bacteria, at levels which measure many times more toxic than permitted by public health standards . Before the Clean Water Act passed in 1972, the Anacostia served as a dumping ground for toxic waste. Long-lasting toxins remain in the sediment today, and there are six known “legacy toxic sites” in the Anacostia . Toxins still flow into the river from old sites of development as well . These toxins include pharmaceuticals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, herbicides, and heavy metals. These contaminants are destructive to fish and to all organisms that eat them, disrupting and affecting the food chain and ecosystem of the river . The Anacostia is also littered with trash. It is the second U.S. river declared to be “impaired by trash” . Another issue faced by the river is wetland destruction, as 96% of tidal wetlands in the watershed have been destroyed. Wetlands are essential for ecosystem health, and their absence degrades the water quality .