Angola is sub-Saharan Africa's largest oil producer after Nigeria, exporting more of 800,000 barrels of oil per day and delivering more crude oil to the US than Kuwait. The first such joint ventures were established with the three foreign oil companies which had been working in Angola prior to independence from Portugal (1975): the Cabinda Gulf Oil Company (CABGOC), a joint venture operated by Gulf Oil which subsequently became a subsidiary of Chevron; Texaco and Petrofina. Chevron has been in this African nation since the 1930s, when Texaco products were first marketed in Angola. In 1958 the Cabinda Gulf Oil Company Limited drilled its first onshore well and in March 1984, Cabinda Gulf Oil was taken over by Chevron. In 1986, additional exploration by Chevron coincided with the delineation of Angola’s Block 0 and in the 2012, the company reached an impressive milestone in Angola: 4 billion barrels produced from Block 0, offshore Cabinda  . Cabinda is a small enclave, physically separated from the rest of Angola by a narrow strip of land which gives the Democratic Republic of Congo access to the Atlantic Coast. Since the 1960s a small separatist movement, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (Frente de Libertacao do Enclave de Cabinda – FLEC), and a number of splinter groups, have fought a low intensity guerrilla war, first against the Portuguese and subsequently against the MPLA ( a social fabric), to win independence for Cabinda. Consequently the Angola civil war intersects with secessionist conflict in which the role of oil it’s quite clear: Cabinda is Angola’s most oil-rich province, accounting for 60 to 70 per cent per cent of the country’s total current production and nearly all of its foreign-exchange oil earnings (EIU 2001). Obviously the government does’t want to lose this province.  Chevron and its Angolan subsidiary exploit one of the largest oil and gas offshore in the world, in Takula, off the coast of Cabinda. Their platforms are equipped with the latest technology for deepwater drilling. Chevron's operations have been repeatedly blamed for oil spills by the local press and environmental activists. In 1999 an oil spill near the Malonga oil base dealt a severe blow to the struggling local fishing industry. Oil giant Chevron-Texaco gave about $2000 to 10 percent of the affected fishermen. Flaring, hydraulic fracturing, use of dispersants have also dramatically decreased ecological productivity in the region.