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Ankulapaturu thermal power plant, AP, India


VSF Projects Private Ltd (VSFPL) started a Thermal Power Plant in Ankulapaturu village of Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. The installed capacity of the plant is 350 megawatt. The project is located on 1, 200 acres of land. Local villagers along with the organization called Andhra Pradesh Civil Liberties Committee (APCLC) were opposing the thermal power project [1].

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Ankulapaturu thermal power plant, AP, India
State or province:Andhra Pradesh
Location of conflict:Village Ankulapaturu; District Nellore
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Land acquisition conflicts
Thermal power plants
Wetlands and coastal zone management
Specific commodities:Electricity
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The 350 MW coal-fired thermal power plant is being built by VSF Projects Private Ltd (VSFPL). The company is setting up 1x350 MW Super Critical Pulverised Coal fired Thermal Power Plant in its 1st Phase at Ankulapatur Village, Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh. The Terms of Reference (TOR) is approved by SEIAA [2]. The plant is one of the 29 proposed coal-based power plants that will cluster the coastal area of Nellore district. All sites are within a radius of 10-20 km from Krishnapatnam Port. It is India’s biggest privately-owned port which became operational in 2008. Eight of these projects have already received environmental clearance from the environment ministry. The remaining 21 projects, including that of VSFPL, are in different stages of getting sanctions. The total capacity of all the plants is 34,000 MW [3].

Project area:485
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:10,000
Start of the conflict:2011
Company names or state enterprises:M/s VSF Energy Projects Private Limited from India
VSF Projects Limited from India
Relevant government actors:Government of Andhra Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board, Government of India
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Jana Vignana Vedika (JVV), Andhra Pradesh Civil Liberties Committee (APCLC), Communist Party of India (CPI), Communist Party of India Marxist (M), All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC), All India Youth Federation (AIYF), Lawyers Union
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Industrial workers
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Boycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Development of a network/collective action
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Potential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Violations of human rights
Potential: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Negotiated alternative solution
New legislation
Strengthening of participation
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Proposal and development of alternatives:There has been strong public resistance against coal-based thermal power plants coming up as a cluster in a small area. Even from the point of view of power planning, such large numbers of coal-based projects do not make a sense as the demand pattern of Andhra Pradesh would not be able to absorb it fully [3]
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Briefly explain:The protesters were demanding to stop the project as the government sanctioned 28 power projects on the sea coast. In spite of listening their demand police resorted to lathicharge to disperse the mobs. The villagers allege that the project management arranged local goons to prevent entry of locals for the public hearing and the police too colluded with the private goondas and caned the villagers. People are protesting against the police action and demanded the government not to give sanction for the power project in the district [1]
People were not allowed to speak in the public hearing. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) prepared by the company suppresses many facts. Like other Power plants, there will be significant quantities of pollutants will be discharged in the environment. However, the company defended its position saying that the project is not a conventional coal-fired boiler. The project is based on super critical technology where emissions of carbon dioxide other pollutants will be considerably low [3]
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation act (2013)
[click to view]

[1] Public hearing on power plant stalled
[click to view]

Public hearing for thermal power plant in Andhra Pradesh turns violent
[click to view]

Ankulapatur power station
[click to view]

[3] Public hearing for thermal power plant in Andhra Pradesh turns violent
[click to view]

[2] VFS Project limited
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Swapan Kumar Patra
Last update18/08/2019
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