Mongolia, a nation bordered by China and Russia, has 1.5 million sq.km. and nearly 3 million people. It is known for vast, rugged expanses and nomadic culture. Its capital is Ulaanbaatar. Due to its richness in minerals, Mongolia has become a target for more and more international mining companies. In the last decades, more and more mines have been opened with little regard toward the detrimental effects of such activities, both towards the environment and the local people –especially pastoralists who keep their heds on land held in common. In 2001 the Onggi River Movement (ORM) appeared, considered the first grassroots movement of resistance to mining in Mongolia. By 2006 the Mongolian Nature Protection Coalition (MNPC) was formed, which brought together the ORM and 11 other organizations. It later split and other coalitions appeared .