Last update:
2014-05-03

Aquaculture conflict in Golfo de Fonseca, Honduras, Nicaragua

Description:

Gulf of Fonseca has 409 km of coastline and covers an extension of approximately 3,200 km2 of marine and brackish, it includes a protected area: Reserva Natural Protegida Delta del Estero Real, Ramsar site (2001).

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Aquaculture conflict in Golfo de Fonseca, Honduras, Nicaragua
Country:Honduras
State or province:Choluteca, El Valle, Chinandega
(municipality or city/town)Gulf of Fonseca
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict: 1st level:Biodiversity conservation conflicts
Type of conflict: 2nd level :Deforestation
Establishment of reserves/national parks
Wetlands and coastal zone management
Aquaculture and fisheries
Specific commodities:Biological resources
Shrimps
Project Details and Actors
Project details:

40 000 tones/year of shrimps (2008).

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Project area:30 000
Level of Investment:4000000000
Type of populationRural
Company names or state enterprises:Pescanova from Spain - 4776 ha in Nicaragua
Campa - 988 ha in Nicaragua
Farallon Acuaculture de Nicaragua from Nicaragua - 735 ha in Nicaragua
Sahlman Seafoods of Nicaragua from Nicaragua - 456 ha in Nicaragua
Acuaculture Torrencilla I from Nicaragua - 415 ha in Nicaragua
Relevant government actors:Instituto Nicaragüense, de la Pesca y Acuicultura
International and Finance InstitutionsInter-American Development Bank (IADB)
The World Bank (WB) from United States of America
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Cooperativas de pescadores, Unión de Cooperativas Camaroneras de Puerto Morazán, CODDEFFAGOLF
Conflict and Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:International ejos
Local ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
translation missing: en.m.mobilizing_groups.fisher_people
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Participation in international networks in defense of mangroves

Movimiento Social Nicaragüense, Otro mundo es Posible (MSN) ha denunciado a Pescanova ante el Tribunal Permanente de los Pueblos, acusando a la empresa de violaciones de los derechos humanos, laborales y daños al ambiente.
Impacts of the project
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems
Potential: Food insecurity (crop damage), Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Other Environmental impactsMangrove destruction
Health ImpactsPotential: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Occupational disease and accidents
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Militarization and increased police presence
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Criminalization of activists
Deaths
Strengthening of participation
Under negotiation
Violent targeting of activists
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:Shrimp farming aquaculture was promoted through development agencies and international financial institutions, as a vehicle for developing impoverished regions. But, currently the small community-based shrimp-farming organizations are not the main beneficiaries of this activity. The community has lost their livelihood and their land and mangrove forests.
Sources and Materials
References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Maria Mestre Montserrat, Miquel Ortega Cerdà, 2012, Central America: Shrimp Aquaculture, Conflicts and Justice, Samudra, 61.
[click to view]

Mestre, M., Ortega, M., Musoles, L. y Ramos, J. 2011. Conflictos socio-ambientales de la acuicultura del camarón en Centroamérica.Un análisis desde la justicia ambiental. Colección DOCS Núm.1. Vilanova i la Geltrú: Fundació Ent.
[click to view]

Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, El Salvador, Honduras y Nicaragua, Gestión Integrada de los Ecosistemas del Golfo de Fonseca, Propuesta del proyecto FMAN.
[click to view]

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

El Nuevo Diario
[click to view]

La Tribuna, Jorge Varela se despide del Coddeffagolf, 14 enero, 2013
[click to view]

Blue Channel 24
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La Prensa
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International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF) is an international non-governmental organization that works towards the establishment of equitable, gender-just,self-reliant and sustainable fisheries, particularly in the small-scale, artisanal sector.
[click to view]

Red Manglar
[click to view]

Boletín Proyecto Eco-Pesca, 2013, Golfo de 1) Fonseca zona de paz y desarrollo, CODDEFFAGOLF, Amigos de la Tierra España.
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Joan Martinez Alier & Talia Waldron
Last update03/05/2014
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