In Uganda, almost all artisanal gold is mined and exported illegally. Unregulated gold mining has been leading conflicts in the mining sector, competing in land uses, smuggling of gold, child labour, human rights abuses, environmental and human health concerns and tax revenue losses (1). Although the government passed the Mining Policy in 2001, the Mining Act in 2003 and Mining regulations in 2004, the current mineral policies and legislation do not provide sufficient opportunities for the formalization of artisanal gold mining. Instead artisanal mining sites have informal structures that regulate the mining, the lease of lands and settlements (4) (6) (9). In the formalized sector, an increasing number of big multinational businesses are coming in Uganda during the past few years, but have been met with resistance due to fears from locals that large mining operations would affect their current mining efforts and livelihood. In fact, where the companies have obtained the license of mining (Rupa, Moroto, Karamoja, Kitumbi), it has been reported they consistently failed to secure free, prior, and informed consent from the local communities before they started operations on communal lands. The central and local governments have also failed to insist that the companies adhere to this established international standard. Companies arriving to carry out exploration have promised communities benefits to mitigate the loss of land use and livelihood and other impact, including schools, hospitals, boreholes, jobs, scholarships, and money in exchange for their cooperation. But even as exploration or mining has continued, the communities have not seen the promised benefits. Moreover, their condition of exploitation and lack of specialized technology for mining have not changed (7) (1) (5).