Banshkhali coal power station, Chittagong, Bangladesh

Agitation in the Gondamara ward against a very large (imported) coal fired power plant results in several villagers being killed in April 2016 and again in February 2017.


The proposed imported coal-fired power plant in Banshkhali of Chittagong is set to become the biggest private sector investment in the country’s power sector. A joint venture of Bangladesh’s S Alam Group, and China’s SEPCO-3 Electric Power Constitution Corporation and HTG Group will build the thermal power plant with a net capacity of 1,224MW at a cost of $2.4bn. But as reported in the Dhaka Times on 13 May 2016, the Gondamara union (ward) in Chittagong’s Banshkhali has become a prison as the police continue to lay siege and cordon off the area. “The [Banshkhali power plant] project started with fraud, falsity and criminal activities against the Banshkhali people, while the local conglomerate S Alam group started grabbing 1,700 acres of government khash (public) land in the name of the project,” said Prof. Anu Muhammad,  secretary of the National Committee to Protect Oil, Gas, Mineral Resources, Power and Ports. “Bangladesh is getting sliced to fulfil the interests of other countries. India is in Rampal (another coal power station) to create its strategic power, while Russia is in Rooppur nuclear power plant, USA is capturing the Bay of Bengal and now China is in Banshkhali coal-based power plant in the name of creating a special economic zone in Bangladesh.” He added that the electricity crisis cannot be solved with destructive projects like Banshkhali and Rampal coal-based power plants, and Rooppur nuclear power plant project. Panic has gripped the locals of Gondamara union in Banshkhali upazila as police continued to raid the area in  May 2016. Locals claimed that the raids were being conducted to foil their movement against the move to install a coal-fired power plant there. Police, however, claimed that they were conducting the drives to arrest the accused in different cases and recover illegal arms in the upazila. Police checkpoints were being set up at Time Bazar in Shil Kup, Harun Bazar in Saral and Bangla Bazar in Chambal, virtually confining the villagers, they claimed. Other than children and very elderly people, most male members in the area are now on the run fearing arrest after the events of 4th April 2016. “No one is paying heed to our problems. What is going on in the union? They [police] have turned the whole union into a jail. Now, no one can go outside the union,” claimed Abu Ahmed, a close aide of Liakat Ali, convener of the Committee to Protect Habitations and Graveyards (Daily Star, 19 May 2016).    Fear of environment pollution and other hazards, if the power plant was installed, prompted the people of Gondamara area of Banshkhali to go for agitation. The locals alleged that some people in favour of S Alam Group forced them to sell their land to the group. Mosharraf Hossain, an Imam of a mosque in Chittagong city and resident of Gondamara, said that there were several hundred homesteads in the area where S Alam Group was trying to set up the coal-fired power plant. ‘We will not be able to live there if the power plant is set up. Our household, arable land and salt processing fields would be damaged due to the pollution if the plant was set up,’ said Mosharraf. Meanwhile, Hanif, an honours student of Chittagong College and resident of the village, said S Alam Group engaged some paid brokers to grab local people’s land. The brokers forced local people to sell their land at lower price. They threatened us when we did not agree to sell our land,’ said Hanif. (New Age, 6 April 2016). The Land Office gave its clearance to S Alam Group to buy 3,000 acres of land, terming the acquired land as “barren land”; this is a baseless claim, the land is used for rice farming and for salt production. Protesters follow the lead of the "Committee to protect habitation and graveyards", implying that some of the land is sacred.

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Basic Data
NameBanshkhali coal power station, Chittagong, Bangladesh
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Thermal power plants
Specific CommoditiesElectricity
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsA coal power station (two units) of 1320 MW.

S. Alam Group and Chinese interests. The controversial coal plants are being built on a forcefully-acquired coastal 600-acre land by the S. Alam Group of Bangladesh which is allegedly a close ally of the ruling party. The company signed an agreement with two Chinese corporations: SEPCOIII Electric Power and HTG back in 2013 to construct the plants.

According to CoalSwarm’s Global Coal Plant Tracker, Bangladesh currently has 14,000 MW of proposed coal plants. Many are sponsored by foreign power companies, including China Huadian Hong Kong (Maheshkhali power station), Korea Electric Power Corporation (also Maheshkkhali power station), India Power Development Board and NTPC (Rampal power station), Malaysia’s Tenaga Nasional Berhad (BPDB/TNB Joint Venture Plant), China National Machinery Import & Export Group Corporation (Kalapara power station), and SEPCOIII and HTG (Chittagong power station).

In addition, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has offered to bankroll the proposed Matarbari power station and Matarbari Port with nearly US$3.8 billion in loans.
Project Area (in hectares)1,100
Level of Investment (in USD)2,500,000,000
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Potential Affected Population30,000
Start Date01/04/2016
Company Names or State EnterprisesS. Alam from Bangladesh
SEPCO-3 Electric Power Constitution Corporation from China
HTG Group from China
Relevant government actorsGovernment of Bangladesh
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersNational Committee to Protect Oil, Gas, Mineral Resources, Power and Ports.

Committee to Protect Homestead and Graveyards.
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
International ejos
Local ejos
Social movements
Trade unions
Fisher people
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Objections to the EIA
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
It is alleged that no EIA has been carried out.
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsPotential: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Other Health impacts
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession
Potential: Increase in violence and crime, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women, Loss of landscape/sense of place
OtherLoss of land for farming and for salt production. Impact on fisheries.
Project StatusProposed (exploration phase)
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCriminalization of activists
Violent targeting of activists
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
On April 5th 2016 at least four people were killed in demonstrations against the plant, and again in February 2017.
Development of AlternativesNot building the large coal power station
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.After the agitation and the killing of demonstrators in April 2016, the goverment says the plans to build the coal power station will go on. One more protester was killed, and dozen more injured on Febuary 2, 2017 during another violent altercation with the police in Banshkhali. The local people have been protesting against the plant due to the fear of forced evictions, including disturbance of their sacred graveyards and damage to the environment. The locality is under continuous patrolling by security guards to ensure construction of the plant.
Sources and Materials

Dhaka Times, 6 May 2016, repression against anti-coal power station activists
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Report by Pinaki Roy on the killings on 4th April 2016 and on the general pattern of protests against coal power stations in Bangladesh
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New Age, report of 6 April 2016
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'Scrap Banshkhali project by Saturday ', Anwar Husain, Chittagong - Dhaka Times 8 April 2016.
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Anu: Police have made Banshkhali a prison, by Abid Azad. Dhaka Times 13 May 2016.
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Power Plant Protest. Raids spark panic in Gondamara, Daily Star 19 May 2016.
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Media Links

End Coal. Bangladesh has big and controversial coal plans, posted April 12, 2016 by Bob Burton
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Dakha Tribune, 5 April 2016, gives names of the demonstrators killed, and the policer version
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Other Documents

Demonstration, April 2016 People from all walks of life gathered at the local Rahmania Senior Madrasha.

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Meta Information
Last update02/02/2017