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Bantar Gebang Jakarta landfill, Indonesia

As a solution to the waste crisis in Jakarta, officials plan the construction of 5 incinerators, a move to further jeopardize the health and source of income of local residents and waste pickers.


The capital of Indonesia, the megacity of Jakarta, is inhabited by over 10 million people. Jakarta is in a waste crisis, and as the waste crisis worsens, tensions between wastepickers, national civil groups and the Jakarta administration increase. Jakarta produces over 7100 tonnes of waste daily, and most of it is sent to Bantar Gebang, a landfill south-east of Jakarta in the Bekasi district [1]. Bantar Gebang started operating in 1989, where the area in Bekasi consisted of housings and rice fields. The landfill has grown rapidly, as the population of Jakarta has increased along with its consumption, and Bantar Gebang is now one of the largest landfills in Asia. Today, Bantar Gebang is the size of 200 acres, and more than 3000 families live within its footprint [1]. Most of these residents work in sorting and collecting metals, electronics and plastics from the landfill, and make a living by selling on the materials. Trucks from the capital load around 7000 tonnes of waste at the landfill every single day, and according to the Jakarta Environmental Agency the volume of garbage at the dumpsite has reached 39 million tons with a height of up to 40 meters [1].

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Bantar Gebang Jakarta landfill, Indonesia
State or province:Jakarta Province, West Java
Location of conflict:Bekasi City
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Waste Management
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Waste privatisation conflicts / waste-picker access to waste
Landfills, toxic waste treatment, uncontrolled dump sites
Specific commodities:Domestic municipal waste
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Jakarta produces over 7100 tons of waste each day.

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Type of populationUrban
Affected Population:20,000
Start of the conflict:01/05/2017
Company names or state enterprises:PT Jakarta Propertindo (Jakpro) from Indonesia
Fortum from Finland
PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN) from Indonesia
Relevant government actors:Administration of Jakarta
Administration of Bekasi
Ministry of Energy
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:-Indonesian branch of Friends of the Earth (Walhi):
-Indonesian Center for Environmental Law (ICEL):
-Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives (GAIA):
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityLOW (some local organising)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Wastepickers, recyclers
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of mobilization:Boycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Property damage/arson
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Potential: Global warming, Soil contamination
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Occupational disease and accidents, Accidents, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Increase in violence and crime
Potential: Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood
Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:One incinerator is under construction in North Jakarta and four others are planned to be built.
Sources & Materials

[1] Description of an everyday in Bantar Gebang
[click to view]

[2] Open-dumping sites in Indonesia
[click to view]

[3] Compensation for locals living in Bekasi near the landfill
[click to view]

[4] Compensation from Jakarta to Bekasi
[click to view]

[5] Local residents threat to close down landfill
[click to view]

[6] 51 garbage trucks halted
[click to view]

[7] Garbage trucks attacked
[click to view]

[8] Incinerator project to begin
[click to view]

[9] Bantar Gebang to become waste residue processing center
[click to view]

[10] GAIA Report 2018 on Waste Incineration
[click to view]

[11] Construction of incinerator in North Jakarta
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Nina Clasuager
Last update21/09/2019
Conflict ID:4049
Legal notice / Aviso legal
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