Last update:

Bhopal gas tragedy, India

The biggest industrial disaster in the last 30 years in India, chronic diseases, malformations, death, severe contamination. Affected people only going to receive 5oo dollars compensation from the Dow Chemical company.


On the night of 2nd December, 1984 a leak of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas and other chemicals from the Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) pesticide plant in Bhopal, resulted in the exposure of hundreds of thousands of people. Over the next few days up to 8,000 people died and the case is counted as the worst industrial disaster in human history. According to the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal (ICJB), more than 150,000 gas victims are chronically ill, and 50,000 or so are too sick to even work for a living. Till date, more than 25,000 have died as a result of exposure to the poison gases. The toxic wastes that lie strewn in and around the factory has leaked its poisons into the groundwater.

See more
Basic Data
Name of conflict:Bhopal gas tragedy, India
State or province:Madhya Pradesh
Location of conflict:Bhopal
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Industrial and Utilities conflicts
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Chemical industries
Specific commodities:Chemical products
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The company produced 5,000 tons of pesticides each year, having 14 plants operating throughout the country.

See more
Type of populationUrban
Affected Population:100000
Start of the conflict:1984
Company names or state enterprises:Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) from India
Dow Chemical Company (Dow) from United States of America
Relevant government actors:United States Government, India Supreme Court, Madhya Pradesh Government, India Government, MoEF - India, SCOTUS - Usa, District Court of Bhopal, CBI - India, Departement of Chemicals and Petrochemicals - India
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Greenpeace, Justice for Bhopal, AID - India, PSI - India, Yes Men, Students for Bhopal, CorpWatch - USA, PANNA - USA, SACEM, Amnesty International, Center for Constitutional Rights, Earthrights International
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups mobilizing:Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Informal workers
International ejos
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Hunger strikes and self immolation
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Genetic contamination, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Air pollution, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Potential: Global warming
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Malnutrition, Occupational disease and accidents, Infectious diseases, Deaths, Accidents, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution, Other environmental related diseases
Potential: Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..)
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Specific impacts on women, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..)
Project StatusStopped
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Deaths, Assassinations, Murders
Strengthening of participation
Proposal and development of alternatives:The victims want to force DOW company to pay for the damages and the restoration of the area.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:Although there was a trial that made the company to pay an amount of US$470 million dollar, the affected population claims it is insignificant and demands a proper environmental restoration and payment of the true liabilities.
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

State of Madhya Pradesh through CBI vs. Warren Anderson, et al. - Judgment, Court of Chief Judicial Magistrate Bhopal, 7 June 2010 (see attachment)

Judicial case No. 8460 / 1996 State of Madhya Pradesh vs. Sri Warren Anderson & others
[click to view]

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Environmental Movements in India, Pawar,S.N.; Patil,R.B.;Salunkhe, S.A. codice: IN 015

The Violence of the Green Revolution, Shiva, Vandana

Bhopal gas tragedy, The worst Industrial Disaster In Human History, Mukherjee, Suroopa

Cloning Bhopal, Exposing the dangers in Delhis environment, Dubey, Sunita; Bansal, Shipra; Pawar, Deepika

Bhopal: Exposure of a corporate crime, by Wanchoo A., Greenpeace India
[click to view]

International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal
[click to view]

2012 London Olympics: India to Raise Issue of Dow Sponsorship over Bhopal Link, by Prasad, B.
[click to view]

Bhopal gas tragedy victims press on with appeal arguments in U.S., September 5th, 2015, by Lakshman, N.
[click to view]

NIghtmare in Bhopal, December 3rd, 2004, Greenpeace USA
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Lucie Greyl
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:465
Legal notice / Aviso legal
We use cookies for statistical purposes and to improve our services. By clicking "Accept cookies" you consent to place cookies when visiting the website. For more information, and to find out how to change the configuration of cookies, please read our cookie policy. Utilizamos cookies para realizar el análisis de la navegación de los usuarios y mejorar nuestros servicios. Al pulsar "Accept cookies" consiente dichas cookies. Puede obtener más información, o bien conocer cómo cambiar la configuración, pulsando en más información.