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Billion Tree Tsunami Afforestation Project, Pakistan

The government has targeted the forest area in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province for a major enhancement. Conflicts between state authorities and ethnic Gujjars have emerged over forest enclosures.


In the backdrop of the debates over accelerated deforestation, environmental degradation and climate change in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the province’s ruling party, the Pakistan’s Tehreek-e-Insaaf (PTI), started the Green Growth Initiative (GCI) in 2014. The initiative laid out a strategy for the greening of economic activities in Pakistan and included the Billion Tree Tsunami Project (BTTAP), the KPK National Parks project, and the Community Micro-Hydel project. This case focuses on the Billion Tree Tsunami Project, a project that proposes to plant 1 billion trees in the province. [1]

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Billion Tree Tsunami Afforestation Project, Pakistan
State or province:Khyber PakhtunKhwa
Location of conflict:Multiple cities
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp
Land acquisition conflicts
Specific commodities:Land
Ecosystem Services
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The project has two major components.

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Project area:625,000
Level of Investment for the conflictive project47,809,167
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:unknown
Start of the conflict:01/03/2014
Relevant government actors:Govt. of KPK, Pakistan
Department of Forest, Wildlife and Environment
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityLOW (some local organising)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Landless peasants
ethnic Gujjars
Forms of mobilization:Media based activism/alternative media
Property damage/arson
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Other Environmental impacts
Other Environmental impactsAfforestation
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Land dispossession
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Migration/displacement
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Sources & Materials
References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

[4] Sultan-i-Rome, (2016). Land and forest governance in Swat. Lahore: Oxford university press.

[5] Ashraf, U. (2018). Political Ecology of afforestation in Pakistan. Ecología Política, 55 (1).
[click to view]

[1] The News on Sunday, 7 January 2018 "Shady trees". (accessed online 12.09.2018).
[click to view]

[2] BTTAP (2014). ‘Billion Tree Tsunami Afforestation Project’. Accessed online 10.09.2018
[click to view]

[3] Jamhoor Media 02 Feburaru 2018, “Marginalized by conservation”. (accessed 10.02.2017)
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Usman Ashraf, alumnus ISS, The Hague. [email protected]
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:3566
Legal notice / Aviso legal
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