Calcite mining in Nimmalapadu village, AP, India


Nimmalapadu in Andhra Pradesh is mostly tribal dominated area and the residents are mainly farmers. They used to cultivate three crops a year by managing the flow of a small stream into the village.

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Basic Data
NameCalcite mining in Nimmalapadu village, AP, India
ProvinceAndhra Pradesh
SiteNimmalapadu, Chintapalle, Visakhapatnam
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Mineral ore exploration
Specific CommoditiesCalcite, Magnesium
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsBirla Periclase, a subsidiary company of Indian Rayon and Industries was given a lease of 120 acres in Nimmalapadu in 1987. The land was given to extract calcite, one of the principal raw materials for the company's Sea Water Magnesia plant near Bheemunipatnam in Vishakhapatnam district. It was not only the lease that raised the alarm among the adivasis, but also the infrastructure facilities provided by the state government to facilitate the mining operations. The state government shared 50% of the cost of constructing roads, acted as a 'facilitator' to acquire land for a 22 km long road, with width varying from 25ft to 90 ft, and promoted construction of road for the actual operation site in the name of ‘public purpose'[4].

Project Area (in hectares)48.6
Type of PopulationRural
Start Date1987
Company Names or State EnterprisesBirla Periclase from India - a subsidiary company of Indian Rayon and Industries (India)
Indian Rayon and Industries from India
Relevant government actorsGovernment of Andhra Pradesh
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersSamata- a Hyderabad-based NGO,,
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Forms of MobilizationDevelopment of a network/collective action
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Mine tailing spills
Socio-economic ImpactsPotential: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusStopped
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCourt decision (victory for environmental justice)
Project cancelled
Development of AlternativesOnly cooperative societies run by indigenous local residents should operate in the area.
Do you consider this as a success?Yes
Why? Explain briefly.The Court Judgement known as 'Samata judgement' which came after a 10-year struggle. In the judgment known as the Court ruled that the state had no right to grant leases in areas governed by the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution. Only cooperative societies jointly run by tribals could mine in such areas [2]
Sources and Materials

Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) (PESA) Act


A report on Profit Sharing with local communities
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Sharing the Wealth of Minerals


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vs AP.htm
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[3] Tribal onslaughts
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[1] Mining, people and the environment : The Implications of the EU-India Free Trade Agreement by Chandra Bhushan and Sugandh Juneja
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CPI(M) launches ‘porata yatra against mining
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Makireddy: Rallying for adivasi land rights
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Girijans oppose calcite mining
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[4] This is our homeland: a collection of essays on the betrayal of adivasi rights in India

Samatha Vs State of Andhra Pradesh

Meta Information
ContributorSohan Prasad Sha & Swapan Kumar Patra
Last update08/04/2014