The usage of fracking technique of high-pressure water, chemicals, and sand has been used in California since approximately 2011, primarily in order to drill for oil. The controversial technique has been used in at least 1,900 California oil and gas wells by different “Big Oil” companies operating in the State. Regulators and lawmakers were accused by different environmentalist groups to know only very little about how and where oil companies employ techniques of hydraulic fracturing all over California. Since the dangerous effects of fracking on air, water, wildlife, public health and climate became more and more public, different environmental and other civil society movements have formed to protest against the usage of fracking in California. Environmentalists have sued the federal government in order to prevent oil companies from fracking on public lands in Monterey and Fresno counties. The Governor of California, Jerry Brown, has also been heavily criticized for not restricting oil companies in their fracking activities as much as demanded by civil society. In 2013, fracking regulations were included in Senate Bill 4 in California. In a joint letter to Governor Brown, Environmental Groups responded to the passing of the regulations, saying that the rules included in the bill “do not consider long-term and wide-ranging environmental, public health and economic consequences of fracking in California”.