Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station, India


Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station (CSTPS) is the biggest ‘pit head’ Thermal Power Station of the Maharashtra State Electricity Board. The project is located near Chandrapur, Maharastra [1] Many of the plant's units have now become old (Nos. 1 and 2 units had started as early as in 1983 and 1984 respectively). Also, the heights of the chimneys are less than the prescribed norms for thermal power stations. These old units of CSTPS are constantly violating pollution control standards.

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Basic Data
NameChandrapur Super Thermal Power Station, India
SiteVillage -Tukum, Town - Chandrapur
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Thermal power plants
Specific CommoditiesElectricity
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThis power station has 7 units (4X210; 3X500) and total installed capacity of the project is 2340 mw. The project was developed in four stages. In the first stage the construction works was started in 1977 and the first unit of 210 MW units started its production August 1983. In the second stage third and fourth units were constructed and operationalized in 1986.

In the third stage, in 1985 and 5th and Unit 6th were commissioned in 1991. Fourth and final stage another unit was constructed and commissioned in 1997.

The coal requirement of the station is about 38000 Metric Tons per day. All coal requirements are supplied from various open cast collieries located within the radius of 50 Kms from this power station [1, 4].
Project Area (in hectares)11212
Type of PopulationRural
Start Date2010
Company Names or State EnterprisesMaharashtra State Power Generation Company Ltd (Mahagenco) from India - owner
Relevant government actorsMaharastra Pollution Control Board (MPCB)
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersEco-Pro Chandrapur, Maharastra
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Local ejos
Forms of MobilizationCommunity-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Other Environmental impacts
Potential: Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Loss of livelihood, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Strengthening of participation
Technical solutions to improve resource supply/quality/distribution
Application of existing regulations
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Development of AlternativesMaharashtra Pollution Control Board have relaxed the rules and have prescribed unit Nos. 1 and 2 standard of 150 mg/Nm3 particulate emission as a special case. Even with all these relaxations, CSTPS has failed to bring discharge under control with the specially prescribed standards despite it has spent on repairs of these electrostatic precipitators.

The electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) of these two units are designed to control SPM of 757 mg/Nm3 and are unable to achieve prescribed standards of 150 mg/Nm3. Activists are demanding immediate scrapping of unit Nos. 1 and 2. [2]
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.MPCB officers carry out stack monitoring (pollution inspection) and found violation of norms on every instance during the last three years [2]. The plant has installed electrostatic precipitator systems in 2003. In 2007 it has installed permanent ammonia dosing system for both units. However, CSTPS has failed to meet the emission standards in the two old units [3].
Sources and Materials

The air (prevention and control of pollution) act, 1981
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Endangered Waters : Impacts of Coal fired Power Plants on Water Supply
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Role of Thermal Power Plants and Coal Mining in Local Area

Development and Addressing Regional Imbalance: Conditions and

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Role of Thermal Power Plants and Coal Mining in Local Area

Thermal Power Plants on The Anvil : Implications And Need For Rationalisation
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[1] Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station
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[3] Maharashtra’s largest thermal power plant spewing poison over Chandrapur
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[2] Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station poisoned Chanda air every day in last 3 years: RTI
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[4] Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station
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Eco Pro Chandrapur
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Media Links

CSTPS Chandrapur chimneys releasing thick ash and smoke
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RTI: Super Thermal Power Station poisoned air,every day in last 3 years, Chandrapur-TV9 (in Marathi language)
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Pollution in Chandapur.mp4 (in Marathi language)
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Other Documents

The chimney stacks of CSTPS emitting thick smoke Source :
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Meta Information
ContributorSwapan Kumar Patra
Last update30/05/2014