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雪佛龙炼油厂在里士满,加州,美国


案例描述

自1902年以来,雪佛龙一直炼油原油,以制造石油产品和其他化学品在里士满,穷人和大多数非洲裔美国社区,加尔加·哥斯达县,加利福尼亚州。在20世纪,里士满炼油厂遍布整个地区。今天,该公司每天雇用1200人,并每天进入汽油,喷射燃料,柴油和润滑油的一天大约24万桶原油。消极的健康结果与该地区的工业污染负担不成比例。最近的健康研究报告说,里士满儿童哮喘的患病率(17%)是与全国平均水平(7%)的两倍。在里士满生活15年以上的成年人(34.9%)的成年人患病率明显高于最近的居民(9.2%),既高于全国平均水平(8.7%)。与空气污染有关的其他急性健康问题,如头痛,眼睛刺激,皮肤刺激和呼吸过敏,在这些社区中已经确定了1993年的争议,当雪佛龙制定计划增加其化学品储存时以及里士满地区的危险化学品数量。$%和$%和未经雪佛龙谈判协议,当地居民试图将公职人员迫使公司投资5000万美元进入社区发展。西县Toxics联盟能够在里士满成功地将规划委员会汇放,因为它可以集会数百名公民。 Golden Gate Law Clinic的法律建议还帮助了这一社区集团的法律,如CEQA(加州环境质量法),因此提供了强大的证据表明,重新制定的燃油计划对儿童和其他弱势居民产生不利影响。雪佛龙最终支付500万美元。$%和$%和2008年选举,里士满居民批准了里士满营业执照税(衡量T),这是一项倡议为雪佛龙为城市带来1000万美元的额外收入,以扩大社区计划。但是,2009年2月,雪佛龙向斯托卡斯塔县的诉讼提出了诉讼,该法院被裁定,宣告措施,撤销违宪和空缺。$%和百价比,植物开始运营,已经发生了数百个事故。最新的是2012年8月6日发生的大型爆炸和火灾。该事故引起了1500多万居民,在地区医院寻求治疗。 2012年事故和大众抗议(210名抗议者在事故的一周年被捕)之后,里士满市将诉讼提起了对雪佛龙的诉讼。为了响应这一诉讼,雪佛龙在六个刑事指控中没有提出任何背景,并同意落实额外监督其运作,并支付200万美元的罚款和恢复原状。$%和$%和

基本数据
冲突名称:雪佛龙炼油厂在里士满,加州,美国
国家:美国
州或省份:加利福尼亚州
冲突位置:里士满
位置精度高(地方范围)
冲突来源
冲突类型(一级):工业和公用事业冲突
冲突类型(二级)石油和天然气提炼
商品原油
化学产品
项目详情和相关主体
项目详情

炼油厂每天处理大约240,000桶原油。公司于1989年至1995年至1995年间发生了304次事故 - 主要火灾,溢出,泄漏,爆炸,有毒气体释放,燃烧和空气污染。

项目面积:2,324
投资规模1,000,000,000
人口类型城市
受影响人数15,000-30,000
冲突开始事件:1993
公司名称或国有企业名称Chevron from United States of America
相关政府主体:里士满市,规划委员会,里士满市,加利福尼亚州
环境正义组织(和其他支持者)及其网址(若存在):西县Toxics联盟,社区为一个更好的环境,金门大学环境法和司法诊所,APEN(亚太环境网络)
冲突与动员
强度中等(街头抗议、可见的动员)
反应阶段项目执行时的反应(在施工或运营期间)
参与行动的群体:本地环境正义组织
地方政府/政党
邻居/公民/社区
社会运动
被歧视的民族和种族群体
动员形式:以社区为基础的参与式研究(大众流行病学研究等)
行动网络/集体行动的发展
制定备选方案
诉讼,法庭案件、司法行动
基于媒体的行动/替代媒体
公众活动
街头抗议/游行
项目影响
环境影响可见: 火灾, 噪声污染, 废物(水、渣、气等)外溢, 原油泄漏, 大气污染
潜在: 全球变暖, 土壤污染, 景观/美感丧失
健康影响可见: 事故, 暴露于未知或不确定的复杂风险中(辐射等), 职业病和事故, 其他环境相关疾病
其他健康影响哮喘和其他与空气污染有关的急性健康问题:眼睛刺激,头痛,流鼻血,呼吸过敏和皮肤刺激。
社会经济影响潜在: 腐败增加/收编不同行动者, 缺乏工作保障、丧失劳动力、解雇、失业
结果
项目状态运行中
冲突结果/回应赔偿
环境改善、恢复/区域修复
法院判决(环境司法失败)
协商替代解决方案
改善资源供给/质量/分配的技术解决方案
适用现行法规
你认为这在环境正义上是否成功?是否捍卫了环境正义?不确定
略作解释未在与雪佛龙谈判谈判后,当地居民试图将公共官员大厅迫使公司将5000万美元投入社区发展。西县Toxics联盟能够在里士满成功地将规划委员会汇放,因为它可以集会数百名公民。 Golden Gate Law Clinic的法律建议还帮助了这一社区集团的法律,如CEQA(加州环境质量法),因此提供了强大的证据表明,重新制定的燃油计划对儿童和其他弱势居民产生不利影响。雪佛龙最终支付500万美元。
资料来源
相关法律和法规

City of Richmond's Measure T
[click to view]

California Environmental Quality Act
[click to view]

著作、学术文章、电影或公开发行的纪录片等参考文献

Choy, Ellen, and Ana Orozco. "Chevron in Richmond." Race, Poverty, & the Environment 16.2 (2009): 43-46.

Cohen, Alison, et al. "Our Environment, Our Health A Community-Based Participatory Environmental Health Survey in Richmond, California." Health Education & Behavior 39.2 (2012): 198-209.

Brody, Julia Green, et al. "Linking exposure assessment science with policy objectives for environmental justice and breast cancer advocacy: the northern California household exposure study." American Journal of Public Health 99 (2009).

Wikipedia Entry of Chevron Richmond Refinery
[click to view]

Bernard, Sara. "Henry Clark and Three Decades of Environmental Justice." Richmond Confidential. N.p., 6 Dec. 2012. Web. 08 May 2014. .
[click to view]

University of Michigan Environmental Justice Case Study: West County Toxics Coalition and the Chevron Refinery in Richmond, California
[click to view]

Democracy Now. Goodman, Amy. "Chevron to Pay $2 Million for 2012 Refinery Fire in Richmond, CA; 200 Arrested at Protest." Democracy Now! N.p., 6 Aug. 2013. Web. 08 May 2014. .
[click to view]

相关视频、活动、和社交网络链接

Henry Clark grew up alongside the Chevron oil refinery and General Chemical Co. plant in North Richmond. (Photo by: Sara Bernard)
[click to view]

Protesters march against Chevron in Richmond, California on Saturday. Credit: @joshkahnrussell
[click to view]

Animation of Fire at Chevron's Richmond Refinery, August 6th 2012. A film produced by the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board detailing the sequence of events and cause of the fire (8 mins 15 secs).
[click to view]

The toxic smoke rising from the disastrous fire at Chevron’s Richmond refinery crude unit no. 4 on Aug. 6, seen from a ferry boat in San Francisco Bay. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the foreground. – Photo: Harrison Chastang
[click to view]

NBCBayArea. Richmond police have arrested more than 160 protesters for trespassing at a Chevron refinery as part of an environmental protest against the oil industry.

Capt. Mark Gagan says more than 2,500 people marched to the Chevron refinery during Saturday's planned nonviolent demonstration in Richmond.

Gagan says activists were handcuffed, cited and released after they refused to cease trespassing outside the refinery's main gate. At least 175 arrests had been made by 5 p.m. Saturday, and he expects the total number of arrests to exceed 200.

Gagan says there have been no reports of injuries or damage.

Saturday's action comes three days before the anniversary of the Aug. 6 explosion that fouled the air, shut down the refinery and sent hundreds of residents to the hospital with breathing complaints.



It comes one day after Richmond city leaders and their attorneys filed litigation against Chevron in connection with the fire.



The lawsuit alleges the explosion and blaze at the Richmond refinery on Aug. 6, 2012, resulted from "years of neglect, lax oversight and corporate indifference to necessary safety inspection and repairs."









The fire occurred after a leak in a corroded pipe in the refinery's crude oil unit created a large cloud of hydrocarbon vapor that ignited in a fireball at about 6:30 p.m. that day.









The fire burned for several hours before being controlled and sent a huge plume of toxic black smoke over the area. More than 15,000 people were treated at hospitals for respiratory problems and other illnesses.



The lawsuit, authorized by the City Council last week after months of failed negotiations with Chevron, seeks financial compensation for economic damage to the city, including the costs of emergency response, firefighting, environmental cleanup, alleviating harm to public health, and loss of value in city property.
[click to view]

其他评论这是美国在密歇根大学研究生的国家环境活动家,学者和其他领导者的国家调查中确定了美国前40名有影响力的环境司法案例之一
元数据
案例作者Alejandro Colsa Pérez, [email protected], University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment
最近更新15/03/2018
案例编码17
评论
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