The Bihar Forest Corporation's policy of replacing sal and mahua forests with teak has been sharply opposed by Ho, Munda and Santal indigenous peoples in the Chota Nagpur area. In August 1979, the tribals, armed with bows and arrows, began cutting down the teak forests, asking simultaneously for their replacement with trees of species more useful to the local economy. The opposition to teak dovetailed with a wider movement of self-assertion which has demanded a separate tribal state of Jharkhand (which eventually became independent in 2000). A slogan of the movement, "Sal means Jharkhand, Sagwan [teak] means Bihar", captured these links between the economic and ecological exploitation of the area. In 1980, it degenerated into a violent confrontation between tribals and the forest officials and police in Gua, resulting in the death of 13 indigenous peoples and 3 policemen.