Shishmaref is a community composed primarily of Native Inupiaq Eskimos just South of the Artic Circle located on a small barrier island. Climate change has led rising temperatures melting the seas ice that shelters the community from storm surge as well as the permafrost of the island which has led to major erosion. In 2002 realizing the only viable option was to leave the island residents voted to relocate the entire community. No relocation action was taken due to a lack of resources. A 2006 study conducted by the Army Corps of Engineers estimated the cost of relocation between $100-200 million. The same study predicted that the existing village would be destroyed by erosion and flooding within 10 to 15 years. The question of how the Shishmaref community will be able to survive and retain their 4,000 year old culture in the face of these changes remains open.