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Costa Brava Landfill, Lebanon

The Costa Brava Landfill is promoted as a temporary solution to the trash crisis that Lebanon suffered of in 2015. However, local residents and activists are against this landfill because it has many impacts on the environment and the aviation safety.


The Costa Brava landfill was opened in April 2016, it is one of the two landfills that have been advertised by the Lebanese government as a solution to the eight-month trash crisis that the country went through in 2015. It was a temporary alternative to the Naameh landfill which was closed in May 19, 2015, after 17 years of operation, leading to the accumulation of trash piles in the city of Beirut and its environs. However, two weeks after the establishment of the plan, local residents and activists including the “You stink” campaign, the campaign for the closure of Al-Ghadeer landfill and the Lebanese Eco Movement held protests at the sites requesting the closure of the Costa Brava and the Bourj Hammoud landfills. In September 2016, activists filed a lawsuit against the Lebanese State, Al-Jihad group for Commerce and Contracting (JCC) and the Union of the Southern Beirut municipalities asking for the closure of the landfill. In addition, residents and activists from the Lebanese Eco Movement created a tent at the site preventing garbage trucks from penetrating and disposing the waste. In their sit-in, they requested people to sign a petition to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) to shut the landfill since it could contribute to the pollution of the air and the sea nearby and it could be a threat for aviation safety due to its location close to the airport. The petition got 10,452 signatures; however, Paul Abi Rached, president of the Lebanese Eco Movement and TERRE Liban, stated that it was not useful because UNEP seemed to support the emergency plan. Additionally, many activists declared that the installation of the landfill in the chosen site is a violation of the Barcelona convention concerning the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Mediterranean that was adopted in 1995. Following this mobilization, the Judge of Urgent Matters in Baabda, Hasan Hamdan, ordered in December 2016 the Civil Aviation Authority, the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture to conduct a study assessing the impacts of the landfill on the environment and the aviation safety.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Costa Brava Landfill, Lebanon
State or province:South Beirut
Location of conflict:Choueifat
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Waste Management
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Wetlands and coastal zone management
Waste privatisation conflicts / waste-picker access to waste
Landfills, toxic waste treatment, uncontrolled dump sites
Specific commodities:Domestic municipal waste
Chemical products
Industrial waste
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The project of the Costa Brava Landfill was a part of an emergency plan approved by the Cabinet of Former Prime Minister Tammam Salam in 2016, in order to solve the trash crisis that Lebanon suffered of in 2015. Trash piled up in the streets of the city of Beirut and its suburbs as a result of the closure of the Naameh Landfill in July, after 17 years of operation, with no substitutes provided. The four year plan constituted of reopening the Naameh Landfill for two months while establishing two new landfills; one in Bourj Hammoud in the North of Beirut and another one in Costa Brava located nearby the South of Beirut.

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Level of Investment for the conflictive project60,000,000
Type of populationUrban
Company names or state enterprises:Al Jihad Group for Commerce and Contracting (JCC)
Relevant government actors:Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR)
Ministry of Environment
Ministry of Public Works
Beirut's Southern Suburbs Municipalities Union
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:"You Stink" Campaign
Lebanese Eco Movement
T.E.R.R.E Liban
حملة اقفال مكب الغدير
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Local ejos
Social movements
Wastepickers, recyclers
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity)
Potential: Global warming, Soil contamination
Other Environmental impactsAviation near the airport in danger
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Infectious diseases
Potential: Deaths, Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Violations of human rights
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Court decision (undecided)
Proposal and development of alternatives: T.E.R.R.E non-governmental organization proposed an alternative plan for the management of the waste of Beirut and Mount Lebanon for one year. The project which is entitled “National Action plan for Waste Recycling and Sorting” promotes the protection of the environment, can be easily implemented and is cost effective. According to Paul Abi Rached, founder and president of the organization, the NAWRAS transitional plan is Eco friendly and it can provide around $50 million for the government. The project consists of the mandatory sorting and separation of waste into organic, inorganic and hazardous material at the level of households, establishments, stores, restaurants, etc. by installing green and red garbage bins in the streets for the disposal of the separated waste. The waste is then collected by garbage trucks and transported to several facilities. Generally, the organic waste is carried to a composting plant, the inorganic waste is recycled and the hazardous waste is stored. Thus, the main purpose of the plan is to reduce the amount of waste dumped into the temporary landfills, including the one in Costa Brava, from 2400 tons/day to 300 tons/day.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:According to Hassan Bazzi, the attorney who issued the lawsuit, the judge’s decision of closing the landfill after four months was appealed by Beirut Southern Suburbs municipalities Union. However, this decision can still be implemented since the court of appeal of Mount Lebanon did not come up with any judgement after the appeal. Nevertheless, Paul Abi Rached indicated that politicians and government actors are trying to postpone the court date by applying pressure on Judge Hasan Hamdan in order to change his decision of permanently closing the landfill. In his opinion, these people are trying hard to keep residents away from the site because, later on, it would be beneficial for the establishment of other projects. As expected, on June 22, 2017, the court of appeal date was postponed until 6/7/2017 because the representative of the Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR) requested concerned individuals to listen to the Socotel consultant.
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

مرسوم أصول تقييم الأثر البيئي
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Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean
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Residents, Activists Form Human Chain to Protest Costa Brava Landfill
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Choueifat residents demand closure of Costa Brava landfill
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مطمر كوستا برافا للنفايات: ألف طن يومياً تلوّث البحر وتخنق الهواء .4
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Study ordered on impact of Costa Brava landfill on airport
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3.Choueifat urges immediate action on Costa Brava landfill before summer
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Lebanon’s Seaside Dump Threatens Not Only the Environment, But Also Airplanes
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Activists hold sit-in against Costa Brava landfill, south of Beirut
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One Year On, Lebanon’s Waste Management Policies Still Stink
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Protesters briefly block Costa Brava entrance on Earth Day
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5.How a landfill poses danger to Beirut flights
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Costa Brava landfill to reopen temporarily
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The long goodbye

Government waste management scheme not fully implemented
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'Countdown' Begins for Implementation of Lebanon's Garbage Plan amid Skepticism
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Anti-Trash Activists Rally in Naameh, Choueifat, Vow to Block Beirut Entrances Monday Morning
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1.Judge orders Costa Brava dump shot after scare at airport
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2.Municipalities union appeals decision to close Costa Brava
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REPORT: Bourj Hammoud landfill scandal: Contract says waste should be dumped in the sea
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ارجاء دعوى الكوستابرافا
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Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Costabrava landfill..Suffocating the lebanese
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Other comments:*this case story was written in June 2017, therefore new events can happen
Meta information
Contributor:Tala Meraaby, Asfari Institute, AUB
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:2860
Legal notice / Aviso legal
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