Ecuador is the number one rose growing nation in the world. Flower export production began in the mid-1980s under a period of neo-liberal economic reform and rapidly became the fourth largest export product. This industry is mainly concentrated in the highland region of the country, specifically in the cantons of Pedro Moncayo and Cayambe (province of Pichincha). This populated area is the traditional locale of an indigenous population self-recognized as Pueblo Kayambi (Kayambi Peoples), who belongs to the Kichwa Indigenous Nationality. This population bases its livelihood on small-scale agriculture combined with wages from employment in the diverse flower plantations. Since its development, the flower industry practices have been completely unregulated resulting in the use of highly toxic chemicals, improper disposal of toxic waste, contamination of soil, water, etc.. Most flower companies use fumigation several times a week, using products that have been banned in Europe and North America. Despite the fact that since 2003, the national government issued national environmental legislation which obligated the flower companies to obtain environmental licenses, it was not enforced at the local level. As a consequence, in 2009 not one of the total 148 rose companies operating in Pedro Moncayo had environmental an license. In the absence of municipal government enforcement of national laws, grassroots organizations mobilized to demand local regulation of flower industry practices.