Last update:
2014-04-08

Dams on the Niger and Sokoto Rivers, Nigeria

Description:

In 1964, construction of the Kainji dam, 800 km (497 miles) north of Lagos, was undertaken by a consortium of three Italian companies, Impresit Spa, Girola and Lodigiani, who then merged into Impregilo, together with the Netherlands Engineering Company (NEDCO) and the English firm Balfour Beatty Ltd.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Dams on the Niger and Sokoto Rivers, Nigeria
Country:Nigeria
State or province:Sokoto
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Water Management
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Land acquisition conflicts
Dams and water distribution conflicts
Specific commodities:Land
Water
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Around 40,000 farmers were displaced due to The Kainji dam project, and other 13,000 residents because of the construction of the Bakolori dam.

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Project area:125000
Level of Investment:209000000
Type of populationRural
Start of the conflict:1962
Company names or state enterprises:Sacyr from Spain
Fiat Impresit from Italy
Cogefar from Italy
Girola from Italy
Lodigiani from Italy
NEDECO
Balfour Beatty LTD
Relevant government actors:Governmnet of Nigeria, Government of Holland
International and Finance InstitutionsThe World Bank (WB) from United States of America
US Agency for International Development (USAID)
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Residents of the community of Bakolori, International Rivers, WWF International
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Informal workers
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Accidents, Malnutrition, Deaths
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors
Outcome
Project StatusStopped
Conflict outcome / response:Deaths, Assassinations, Murders
Migration/displacement
The dam has collapsed.
Development of alternatives:The restoration of the area and a compensation for the affected population.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The dam activity has stopped not by a human decision, but due to a flood that crumbled the dam and damaged the area, killing some people and displacing other ones.
Sources & Materials
References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Conservation, Ecology, and the Management of African Fresh Waters. Crisman, Thomas L.; Chapman, Lauren J.; Chapman, Colin A.; Kaufman, Les S.. Ed.University Press of Florida. 2003.

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

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Meta information
Contributor:Lucie Greyl
Last update08/04/2014
Comments
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