Druzhba Adria Oil Pipeline, Croatia


The ‘Druzhba Adria’ project aims to connect the pipelines ‘Druzhba’ and ‘Adria’ in order to transport Russian oil to world markets. The plan includes the idea of pumping Russian oil from the Druzhba pipeline starting in Samara (Russia) southwards via Hungarian and Croatian pipelines, to the Omisalj port (Krk Island, on the Croatian Adriatic coast - point on the map). This project includes reversing Croatia’s transit oil pipeline Adria oil (Jadranski Naftovod - Janad), originally built as a one-direction link for transporting crude from the Adriatic coast to the north and east, in the opposite direction — to carry Russian oil for export.

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Basic Data
NameDruzhba Adria Oil Pipeline, Croatia
ProvincePrimorsko-goranska County
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Specific CommoditiesCrude oil
Project Details and Actors
Project Details3200 km long pipeline with maximal planned capacity of 15 million tonnes of crude oil.

The agreed cost of oil transit was $0.64 a tonne per 100 kilometres.
Project Area (in hectares)3200 km long
Level of Investment (in USD)70, 000,000 (The Croatian part of the pipeline network Janaf)
Type of PopulationUnknown
Potential Affected Population18,000
Start Date16/12/2002
End Date26/10/2005
Company Names or State EnterprisesJANAF d.d. – (JADRANSKI NAFTOVOD) from Croatia - Croatian company in charge of Croatian part of the pipeline
YUKOS - Russian oil company in charge of transporting the oil from Russia
Tyumen - Russian oil company in charge of transporting the oil from Russia
Relevant government actorsThe Croatian Government, President and Prime Minister; The Russian Government, President

Environmental justice organisations and other supportersEko kvarner - http://www.ekokvarner.hr; Green Istria http://www.zelena-istra.hr; Franjevački svjetovni red; Zelena Akcija
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingLocal ejos
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
Fisher people
Forms of MobilizationCommunity-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Media based activism/alternative media
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Arguments for the rights of mother nature
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Fires, Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Oil spills, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems
Health ImpactsPotential: Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)
Socio-economic ImpactsPotential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusStopped
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCourt decision (victory for environmental justice)
Negotiated alternative solution
Project cancelled
Project temporarily suspended
Development of AlternativesEco-association “Eko Kvarner” believed three conditions are necessary for the approval of the project: thorough reconstruction of the oil pipeline through Gorski kotar (where it was laid down above strategic Croatia’s drinking water reserves), that no harbour in the east coast of the Adriatic Sea can become an export port for oil and that the existing tanker transport in the Adriatic Sea is to be gradually decreased by substituting it with land transport by oil pipelines.

The local people of Krk Island stated that their main activity is tourism and not oil business that would negatively impact the environment, while providing jobs to only a small number of people.
Do you consider this as a success?Yes
Why? Explain briefly.The project was stopped in 2005, after the refusal of the EIA. The stopping of the project is consider a big victory of civil society groups. However, there is still high political interest in this project. As Croatia has recently joined the European Union (July, 2013) this has made it an even more attractive object of Russian energy interests.
Sources and Materials

Mesic and Putin on Druzhba Adria
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Croatia gives fresh blow to Druzhba-Adria pipeline
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Družba Adria: Naftovod uvjet za plinovod
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Links to various articles on the project (on Croatian)
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Igor Sechin Door-Crashing in Croatia
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Six nations sign Druzhba-Adria project deal
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INTERVJU Vjeran Piršić: Ne smijemo postati zemlja iz filmova o Jamesu Bondu
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Media Links

Marijan Lesica govori o projektu "Družba Adria"
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Other Documents

Druzhba Adria Pipline ‘Druzhba Adria’ project aimed to connect the pipelines ‘Druzhba’ and ‘Adria’ in direction from Samara (Russia) to Omišalj (Croatia) in order to transport Russian oil to world markets
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Protest against the project Many eco-associations and civil society organisations protested against the project. Some of them are Eko kvarner and Franjevački svjetovni red. The sign reads "Oil or Tourism, that is the question?“
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorJovanka Spiric, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, vankajo(at)gmail.com
Last update04/09/2014