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EcoPark Satellite City Project, Hanoi, Vietnam

A ‘perfect harmony of humans and nature’? The EcoPark Satellite City Project causes currently the largest land conflict in Vietnam, due to forced evictions of farmers, depending on their agricultural land to make a living


The 500ha EcoPark Satellite City Project that would construct around 20,000 residential units in Van Giang district close to urban Hanoi was approved by the government in 2004 and is currently among the largest urban development projects within Northern Vietnam. It was described by the proponents as the “perfect harmony of humans and nature”; however, this perception put forward by the urban elite, drastically clashes against the needs and development visions of the 4,000 families to be evicted, as the project is located on their agricultural lands, on which they base their livelihood. Consequently, the EcoPark has led to the most severe recent conflicts over land in Vietnam [1;2;3].

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:EcoPark Satellite City Project, Hanoi, Vietnam
State or province:Hung Yen Province
Location of conflict:Văn Giang District
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Urban development conflicts
Land acquisition conflicts
Specific commodities:Land
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The EcoPark Satellite City Project was approved by former Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung in 2004 [1]. The purpose of the project is to create a large residential zone with around 20,000 residential units as well as luxury facilities such as a golf course, around 20 km Southeast of Hanoi, well-connected via urban transport. It is among the largest infrastructure projects in Northern Vietnam. Total project area amounts to 499.9ha and total investment size, required for its 9 phases of construction, was reported to amount to 8.2 billion USD [2].

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Project area:500
Level of Investment for the conflictive project8,200,000,000
Type of populationSemi-urban
Affected Population:4000 families (an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 people) to be evicted
Start of the conflict:29/06/2004
Company names or state enterprises:Viet Hung Urban Development and Investment J.S.C (VIHAJICO) (VIHAJICO) from Vietnam - construction, property development
AA Construction Architecture Joint Stock Company (AA Corporation) (AA Corporation) from Vietnam - property development
ATA Architects Co. Ltd. (ATA) from Vietnam - construction, property development
Nam Thanh Do Construction Consultants J.S.C from Vietnam - construction, property development
Thanh Nam Construction and Investment J.S.C from Vietnam - construction, property development
Duy Nghia Co., Ltd from Vietnam - property development
Phung Thien Trading Co., Ltd from Vietnam - property development
Nam Thanh Tourism and Commerce J.S.C from Vietnam - tourism, property development
Bao Tin Trading Co., Ltd. from Vietnam - construction, trading
COTECCONS Group from Vietnam - construction
Relevant government actors:Vietnamese (Deptuty) Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung
International and Finance InstitutionsVietcombank from Vietnam - banking, finance, investment
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Urban internet activists supported the protests; Vietnamese Fatherland Front cooperated in protests
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Affected farmers were strongly supported by Vietnamese Internet activists/bloggers, who actively disseminated information, in the face of lacking public media coverage
Fisher people
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Land occupation
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Threats to use arms
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Refusal of compensation
Affected farmers were strongly supported by Vietnamese Internet activists/bloggers, who actively disseminated information, in the face of lacking public media coverage
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Food insecurity (crop damage), Noise pollution
Potential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Health ImpactsVisible: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..)
Potential: Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Militarization and increased police presence, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession
Potential: Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures
Project StatusUnder construction
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Criminalization of activists
Court decision (failure for environmental justice)
Strengthening of participation
Violent targeting of activists
Project temporarily suspended
Violence against farmers but also journalists
Proposal and development of alternatives:Affected families want cancellation of the project, or at least proper compensation.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The project goes on.
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

Vietnamese Land Law of 2013 (Land Law No.45/2013/QH13)
[click to view]

Vietnamese Land Law of 2003 (No. 13/2003/QH11)
[click to view]

[1] RFA News online (09/10/2012): "Hundreds Protest Land Grab" (accessed 06/09/2015)
[click to view]

[2] Eco Park– The City of Green and Blue (Project Description) (accessed 06/09/2015)
[click to view]

[3] online (09/05/2012): "Journalists beaten by Vietnamese police" (accessed 06/09/2015)
[click to view]

[4] RFA News online (07/03/2014): "Vietnamese Farmers Demand Tough Action Against Land-Grabbing ‘Thugs’ " (accessed 06/09/2015)
[click to view]

[5] Chinapost online (22/02/2013): "Farmers in Vietnam protest land 'robbed' for satellite city" (accessed 06/09/2015)
[click to view]

[6] The Irrawaddy online (26/04/2012): "Vietnam Detains 20 Following Mass Land Eviction" (accessed 06/09/2015)
[click to view]

[7] RFA News online (24/04/2013): "A Year After Clashes, Vietnamese Land Dispute Unresolved" (accessed 06/09/2015)
[click to view]

[8] Vietnam Breaking News online (17/05/2014): "Ecopark celebrates regional laudation" (accessed 06/09/2015)
[click to view]

[9] Wikipedia on the EcoPark Project (accessed 06/09/2015) (accessed 06/09/2015)
[click to view]

[10] Vietnam Breaking News online (18/10/2011): "Ecopark comes to life" (accessed 06/09/2015)
[click to view]

[11] Viet Nam News online (04/08/2012): "Banks resume real-estate lending" (accessed 06/09/2015)
[click to view]

[12] BBC News online (25/04/2012): "Vietnam land clash: Arrests after police evict hundreds" (accessed 06/09/2015)
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

April 2012 confrontations
[click to view]

April 2012 evictions
[click to view]

Violent evictions
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:A. Scheidel (ICTA-UAB) / arnim "dot" scheidel "at" gmail "dot" com
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:2011
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