Enbridge Pipelines Inc. - Line 9B Reversal and Line 9 Capacity Expansion Project is a Canadian national energy project that proposes to redirect a crude oil pipeline that leads from Montreal, Quebec to Sarnia, Ontario. The goal of this project is to reverse the flow of oil from Montreal to Sarnia, so as to supply refineries in Montreal and Eastern Canada with domestically sourced Canadian oil. The proposed reversal involves refitting and expanding the already existing pipeline from 240,000 bpd to 300,000 bpd . Opposition to this project is derived mainly from environmentalists, affected communities, individual land owners, and Indigenous First Nations along the proposed route. This pipeline has a long history of contentious debate and political motives surrounding it. Built in 1976, Enbridge Line 9 is 831 kilometers in length and divided into two sections. Line 9A runs from Sarnia to North Westover, Ontario, and Line 9B runs from North Westover to Montreal East. The pipeline travels through much of rural Southern Ontario and Southwestern Quebec, both areas of substantial agriculture and inland river systems. Line 9 also passes within 50 km of an estimated 9.1 million people, including 18 First Nation communities, and directly through 99 towns and cities . As a result, Enbridge’s pipeline affects or has the potential to affect nearly a quarter of Canada’s population and some of the nation’s most ecologically sensitive areas. Issues of concern raised by the projects opponents, include the increased risk of oil spills and leakages along the pipelines route, damage to ecologically sensitive areas, possible water pollution and quality problems, concerns for species at risk, and First Nations rights. The latter, being openly presented in a court challenge of the Chippewas of the Thames First Nation v. Enbridge Pipelines Inc.,  where the Chippewas First Nation claim that Enbridge and the National Energy Board (NEB) failed in their ‘duty to consult’ with the local residents. Significant public attention was brought to this proposed project and to the First Nations court case, because the pipeline passes through the backyard of so many Canadians.