Lake Bogoria Game Reserve evicts Endorois communities, Kenya

African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights’ landmark decision declares illegal the eviction of indigenous Endorois communities for the establishment of a national park


The indigenous Endorois community has been living near Lake Bogoria in the heart of Kenya’s Rift Valley for as long as can be remembered.

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Basic Data
NameLake Bogoria Game Reserve evicts Endorois communities, Kenya
ProvinceRift Valley
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Establishment of reserves/national parks
Specific CommoditiesLand
Project Details and Actors
Type of PopulationRural
Start Date01/01/1973
Relevant government actorsGovernment of Kenya
International and Financial InstitutionsAfrican Union
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights from Gambia, The
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersMinority Rights Group International
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Groups MobilizingIndigenous groups or traditional communities
International ejos
Forms of MobilizationInvolvement of national and international NGOs
Land occupation
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Potential: Food insecurity (crop damage)
Health ImpactsVisible: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCourt decision (victory for environmental justice)
Commission's Decision not implemented by the Kenyan Government
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.Over four years after the adoption of the Commission’s ruling in favour of the Endorois' land rights, the Kenyan Government has so far failed to implement the decision.
Sources and Materials

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities
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International Labour Convention 169
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Resolution ACHPR/Res.65 (XXXIV)03
[click to view]


[1] Landmark ruling provides major victory to Kenya's indigenous Endorois
[click to view]

[2] Rights group urges Kenyan government to stop parcelling Endorois community land without consultation
[click to view]

Other Documents

Lake Bogoria is of great cultural and religious significance to the Endorois. Lake Bogoria is the spiritual home of all Endorois, living and dead, and it is where their ancestors’ burial grounds exist. This area is now one of the largest hotspots for tourism in the area and many visitors come to witness the geysers. (Image by Minority Rights Group International)
[click to view]

“Traditional” villages recreated for benefit of tourists to the region. In reality, indigenous communities now face challenges of extreme poverty because their main form of subsistence, pastoral herding, has been greatly hindered by touristic developments. (Image by Minority Rights Group International)
[click to view]

In the past 30 years, the Endorois community has slowly and methodically been evicted from their traditional lands. A landmark ruling by the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights has deemed such forced eviction to be unlawful. Wilson Kipsang Kipkazi, of the Endorois Welfare Council (EWC) said in a recent interview, “We are delighted that the African Commission has recognized the wrong that was done decades ago. This decision is the result of a sustained campaign for the recognition of the Endorois as a distinct indigenous community and the restoration of our ancestral land.” (Image by Minority Rights Group International)
[click to view]

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Last update10/03/2015