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Meridian Gold Mine in Esquel, Argentina

Read about the first town in Argentina whose inhabitants' strong mobilization forced a municipal plebiscite that stopped a mining project and fostered regulatory changes in the municipality and province. This is a key EJ struggle in Argentina.


El Desquite mine is only 7 km (4 miles) from the city of Esquel, in the Patagonian north-west province of Chubut. The city, the largest in the area, is located by the Esquel River and surrounded by the mountains La Zeta, La Cruz, Cerro 21 and La Hoya. The city name comes from a Mapuche word meaning "thorn" that refers to thorny local plants and the thousand year-old lenga and nire forests (two of the several Patagonian trees unique to the area). Beginning of 2002 Meridan Gold bought the mine site of dore, a gold and silver alloy. Its exploitation was supposed to begin in January 2003: with two explosions a day, every day of the year and for 10 years.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Meridian Gold Mine in Esquel, Argentina
State or province:Chubut
Location of conflict:Esquel
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Mineral ore exploration
Specific commodities:Gold
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The use of 6 tons of cyanide a day to extract the precious Argentine gold. The 26.600 tons of cyanide used over 10 years for the extraction operations: 180 tons a month of sodium cyanide and other chemicals, such as 12 tons of chloridic acid, 12 tons of caustic soda, 1.400 Kg of litharge and so on. The use of about a million litres of water a day.

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Level of Investment for the conflictive project120,000,000
Type of populationUnknown
Start of the conflict:07/2000
Company names or state enterprises:Meridian Gold Inc. from Canada
Bussines for Social Responsability (BSR) from United States of America - hired by Meridian Gold to investigate the reasons of the victory of the opposition to the mine in the referendum
El Desquite S.A - subsidiary of Meridian Gold S.A.
Yamana Gold Inc. from Canada
Relevant government actors:Provincial Government of Chubut, City of Esquel -Argentina
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Asamblea de Vecinos Autoconvocados por el No a la Mina, Cooperativa de Agua, Soc. Ecologica Reg. del Bolson, Association Ornitologica Lago Puelo, Vuquipura Mapu de Alto Rio Senguerr, Proy. Lemu, ORGANIZACION DE COMUNIDADES MAPUCHE TEHUELCHE 11 DE OCTUBRE, Ex Trab. de YPF de Comodoro Rivadavia, Grupo de Reflexion Rural, Protección Ecologica Corcovado, Movimiento Antinuclear de Chubut.
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Indigenous groups or traditional communities
International ejos
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of mobilization:Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Objections to the EIA
Public campaigns
Referendum other local consultations
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Other Environmental impacts
Potential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Desertification/Drought, Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Mine tailing spills
Other Environmental impactsPollution from chemicals used in exploration drillings. Concern over Cyanide use impacts was high.
Health ImpactsPotential: Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..), Occupational disease and accidents, Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Land dispossession, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusStopped
Conflict outcome / response:Institutional changes
New legislation
Project cancelled
After the referendum the company decided to stop the project.
Proposal and development of alternatives:The local community rejected the project.
Since November 2002 they initiated the Assembly of neighbors self-convened (Asamblea de vecinos autoconvocados AVA) and called for a local non-binding referendum (consulta).
They obtained changes in municipal and provincial regulations limiting the use of toxic chemicals in mining. Esquel example fostered a wave of anti-mining regulations in other provinces. A national network of communities affected by mining was created.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Yes
Briefly explain:The population opposed to the project in a referendum on 23 March 2003. Although it was non-binding, the Province government and the company announced a few days later the interruption of the project.
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

National Law on Mining Investments Number 24.196

International Labour Organisation (ILO) Indigenous and Tribal People Convention 169

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

[1] Nuevos conflictos ambientales mineros en Argentina. El caso Esquel (2002-2003), Mariana, Walter, Revista de la red iberoamericana de economia ecologica, 2008, 8: 15-28
[click to view]

[3] Informe de Investigación y Lineamientos Propositivos - Diagnostico de la cuestion minera en la Argentina, Centro para la transparencia en la gestion publica y privida Lisandro de la Torre, 09/2006
[click to view]

Minera: Impactos sociales y ambientales, World Rainforest Movement, 2004
[click to view]

"No todo lo que es oro brilla. Resumen de impactos ambientales de la minería de oro", V. Odriozola, Campaña de Tóxicos de Greenpeace Argentina , 01/2003
[click to view]

Predicciones y promesas de un estudio de impacto ambiental defectuoso (Moran, 2003)
[click to view]

[2] Esquel: El Desquite minero, H. Scandizzo, 05/11/2006
[click to view]

NO a la mina
[click to view]

Observatorio Latinoamericano de Conflictos Ambientales
[click to view]

Patagonia rebelde, D. Aranda, 2013
[click to view]

Cuando esquel dijo No, Hace diez anos se hacia el primer plebiscito antiminero, 23/03/2013
[click to view]

Una corporación vs los vecinos de Esquel: Una querella de película, 15/02/2007
[click to view]

El desquite de Meridian Gold, T.A. Maknis Eco Portal, 10/2003
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Video in Italian "Le miniere di Esquel - Argentina - Vergognoso"
[click to view]

Mapa conflictos mineros
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Lucie Greyl, Camila Rolando Mazzuca, Mariana Walter
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:492
Legal notice / Aviso legal
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